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World Political Subdivisions

(196 political subdivisions)

POPULATION:  The three figures are in the years of 2005, 20256, and 2050 the latter as projections.

POPULATION GROWTH:  Many countries of the world are already as density populated as their economies can comfortably tolerate.  Any increase in population density will adversely affect their  economies.  Many Middle East countries are already importing such essentials as food and water.  Current projections are that their populations will more than double by 2050.

LANGUAGE:  A major part of the communication within each country is through language.  Only through communication will the people of the country become educated in the essentials of life and the necessity of limiting family size.

LITERACY:  The percentage of the people over 15 years of age that is able to read and write.

LOCATION:  Unless we know where a country is located, we will have difficulty in relating that country to those around it.

NATIONAL PRODUCT PER CAPITA:  This is the national output per person of the country’s economy.  Figures are converted to American dollars.  These figures may, or may not include the following variables.

  1. Barter between individuals and companies.
  2. Home consumption of goods produced by the family unit.
  3. Underground Economy where goods and services are bought but not reported to any agency.
  4. Trade in illegal items such as producing, processing, and seling contraband such as heroin or opium.

LAND USE:  This section will allow the reader to better visualize the country and its potential and its problems.

TOPOGRAPHY:  topography and land use will, together, give a picture of the problems that face the government and society of any country.

WATER:  Water is the essential that makes it possible to have a city, to grow crops, to support life.  When Rome was deprived of its water supply, it shrank from over a million people to under 20,000 within months.

GOVERNMENT:  In the years to come, the government will be one of the two major organizations that can activate programs to control population growth and maintain an infrastructure to maintain a viable standard of living and a meaningful life.

RELIGION:  The religious leaders hold the second key to the fate of the people.  Through their teachings, they may transmit the message of the need for family planning, which is the basic tool for population control.

NATURAL RESOURCES:  Natural resources are essential in the maintaining of populations and the functioning of economies.   An example of this is Saudi Arabia, a country that sustains itself, and supports the major part of 30 million people, through the export of petroleum.   The exhausting of this natural resource will create a major crisis.

WORLD TRADE: Imports and exports are all we have to go on in the dependence or the contribution of a country toward a world economy.  A country that has a negative balance and, at the same time, it has a rapidly growing population, will either creat a great burden upon other countries or, if they withhold credits, it will spiral into chaos and will eventual collapse and widespread famine will result.

OVERVIEW:  An abbreviated summation of current knowledge of that country.



  • AFRICA  (52 political subdivisions)
  • ASIA  (35 political subdivisions)
  • EUROPE (43 subdivisions)
  • LATIN AMERICA ((34 political subdivisions)
  • MIDDLE EAST (17 political subdivisions)
  • NORTH AMERICA (U.S. & Canada
  • PACIFIC ISLAND NATIONS (13 political subdivisions
  • SOUTH AMERICA   (See Latin America)



Population estimates are as of 2005 unless otherwise indicated; followed by the estimated populations in 2025 & 2050.  These figures were made available in the 2007 “World Almanac”.


Afghanistan East Timor Libya Senegal
Albania Ecuador Liechtenstein Serbia
Algeria Egypt Lithuania Seychelles
Andorra El Salvador Luxembourg Sierra Leone
Angola Equatorial Guinea Macedonia Singapore
Antigua & Bermuda Eritrea Madagascar Slovakia
Argentina Estonia Malawi Slovenia
Armenia Ethiopia Malaysia Solomon Islands
Australia Fiji Maldives Somalia
Austria Finland Mali South Africa
Azerbaijan France Malta South Sudan
Bahamas Gabon Marshal Islands Spain
Bahrain Gambia Mauritania Sri Lanka
Bangladesh Georgia Mauritius St. Kitt & Nevis
Barbados Germany Mexico St. Lucia
Belarus Ghana Micronesia St. Vincent & Grenadines
Belgium Greece Moldova Sudan
Belize Grenada Monaco Surinam
Benin Guatemala Mongolia Swaziland
Bhutan Guinea Montenegro Sweden
Bolivia Guinea-Bissau Morocco Switzerland
Bosnia Guinea, Equatorial Mozambique Syria
Botswana Guyana Myanmar Taiwan
Brazil Haiti Namibia Tajikistan
Brunei Honduras Nauru Tanzania
Bulgaria Hungary Nepal Thailand
Burkina-Faso Iceland Netherlands Timor, East
Burma (Myanmar) India New Zealand Togoland
Burundi Indonesia Nicaragua Tonga
Cambodia Iran Niger Trinidad & Tobago
Cameroon Iraq Nigeria Tunisia
Canada Ireland Norway Turkey
Cape Verde Israel Oman Turkmenistan
Central African Republic Italy Pakistan Tuvalu
Chad Ivory Coast Palau Uganda
Chile Jamaica Panama Ukraine
China Japan Papua Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
Colombia Jordan Paraguay United Arab Emirates
Comoros Kampuchea (see Cambodia) Peru United Kingdom
Congo (Brazzaville) Kazakhstan Philippines United States
Congo (Zaire) Kenya Poland Uruguay
Costa Rica Kiribati Portugal Uzbekistan
Cote D’Ivory Korea, North Qatar Vanatu
Croatia Korea, South Romania Venezuela
Cuba Kuwait Russia Vietnam
Cyprus Kyrgyzstan Rwanda Yemen
Czech Republic Laos S. Georgia & S. Soviet Union Yugoslavia
Denmark Latvia Samoa Zaire
Djibouti Lebanon San Marino Zambia
Dominica Lesotho Sao Tome & Princeps Zimbabwe
Dominican Republic Liberia Saudi Arabia

Afghanistan – Dominican Republic


255,773 sq. miles (About the size of Texas)

POPULATION: (2009) 28 mil. (2025O 39 mil, (2050) 53 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: 4%, the highest in the world.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 42.9 years.

45% of population in 2005 was under 15 years of age & 2% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 167 deaths per 1,000 live births. Medical Facilities generally inadequate or unavailable. There were about 21 Doctors, 22 nurses & 40 hospital beds per100, 000 people. Major causes of death are starvation, disease, and war. Diarrhea is a major cause of death among children. HIV-AIDS prevalence is less than 1,000 cases nationwide.


LANGUAGES: Pushtun. 35%; Afghan, 50%, Uzbek & Turkmen, 11%

LITERACY: (Can read & write) Male, 41%; Female, 14%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) Per Capita GDP, $800; Rate of growth, 8%; Rate of inflation, 16%; People with income below poverty level, 57%

LOCATION: Central Asia, landlocked, S. of Tajikistan, W. of Pakistan, SW. of Chin, N. of Iran. N. Of Uzbekistan, and NE. Of Turkmenistan.

LAND USE: Arable land, 12%; pasture, 40%; forest, 3%; other (mountains & desert), 39%. Irrigated land is about 10,000 sq. miles.

TOPOGRAPHY: Terrain is mostly rugged with plains in North & Southwest.

WATER: Insufficient rain in most areas.

CLIMATE: Arid to semiarid with cold winters and hot summers.

GOVERNMENT: A coalition controls the general area of Kabul. The rest of the country is controlled by various warlords and local officials. There is a continual struggle for power. A new constitution was ratified in 2004. The Taliban is still active along the Pakistan border.

RELIGION: Muslim, conflict between sects such as Sunni & Talibanl

NATURAL RESOURCES: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc, sulphur, zinc, iron ore, sulfur, semi precious stones. Many minerals are in abundance.

WORLD TRADE: 2004: Export, 98 mil. Import, 1,007 mil. Deficit, 909 mil.

Afghans are major supplies of illicit drugs for the world marked. The above figures may or may not reflect the export of contraband.

OVERVIEW; Exploding population has already strained resources. Pastures are overgrazed. A fragmented political system makes central government impotent and there is little prospect of population control through education or governmental participation likely in the near future. Average number of live births is 6.2 per woman living to age 45, among the largest in the world. Life expectancy is about 43 years. Much of the country outside the major cities has virtually no social or health services. The growth of Poppies for opium is a major cash crop. The Taliban, a radical Muslim organization continues to fight for control of the country*


ALBANIA (Europe)

11,100 sq. miles (larger than Maryland)

POPULATION: (2009) 3.6 mil. (2025) 3.9 mil. (2050) 4.0 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: In 2005 the annual rate was 0.59%.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Average life expectancy is 77.2 years.

22% of the people in 2005 are under 15 years of age and 8% are over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 27 per 1,000 live births. In 2004, there were 545 physicians and nurses per 100,000 people. Leading causes of death are cardiovascular disease, cancer, trauma, and respiratory diseases. HIV-AIDS prevalence is nearly zero. AIDS is unknown in Albania.

CAPITAL: Tirana+

LANGUAGE: Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect) Indo-European, modified by Latin, Greek

LITERACY: can read & write; male, 80%; female, 65%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) GDP per capita, $4,000 est., annual growth, 6%; inflation rate 2.2%; people with income below poverty level, 55%

LOCATION: It is on Adriatic and bordered by Serbia, Montenegro and Greece.

LAND USE: arable land, 21%; permanent crop, 4%; pasture, 15%; forest, 38%; other, 22%

TOPOGRAPHY: mostly mountains & hills with plains along coast.

CLIMATE: cool, mild winters and hot, dry summers. 40 to100 inches

NATURAL RESOURCES: Oil, natural gas, coal, chromium.

RELIGION: Muslim, 70%, Orthodox, 20%, Catholic, 10%

GOVERNMENT: Socialist Republic, with legislature and appointed leader.

WORLD TRADE: Export, 425 mil. Import, 1,077 mil. deficit. 652 mil.

OVERVIEW: Living conditions are among the lowest in Europe. Rural areas tend to be family oriented with an emphasis on the greater family. Albania remained a closed country in the latter part of the 20th century. Its future remains an enigma. *

“National Geographic”, July, 1992, (pp 60-93j) Dusko Doder “Albania Opens The Door”

In 1944 the Communists under Enver Hoxha took over. They established an absolute dictatorship under which all activities were regulated and religion was forbidden. In 1990, Hoxha’s successor lost power and in 1991 a democracy was set up. The result was chaos. All concept of work ethic was lost; economic order was gone and the strong tribal family no longer existed. Religion had returned and the tradition of “Besa” promises must always be kept on pain of disgrace or even prison or death.

“National Geographic”, February, 2000” (pp53-83) “Albanians, a People Undone”

The roads are still terrible and many villages in ruins. The seaport of Vlore is a major transit port for illegal drugs and the Mafiosi are active.

Kosovo with 2 million people is 90% Albanian. In 19988-9, Serbian atrocities increased as Serbs tried to curb freedom that Kosovo enjoyed under Communist rule. The NATO forces entered Kosovo to stop Serbian activities.


ALGERIA (Africa)

919,595 sq. miles (31/2 the size of Texas)

POPULATION: (2009) 34.2 mil. (2025) 40.2 mil. (2050) 44.1 mil.

Population is 99% Arab-Berber.

POPULATION GROWTH: In 2005, annual growth1.6%. Total fertility rate in 2005 was 3.2 children per woman. Women are increasingly using contraceptives.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 73 years.

31% of people in 2005 were under 15; years of age and 5% were over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 31 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2004 there were 382 physicians and nurses per 100,000 people. Major health problems have been tuberculosis, trachoma, malaria and malnutrition. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2008 was .1% of the population.

CAPITAL: Algiers

LANGUAGE: Arabic (official, French), Berber dialects

LITERACY: (can read and write): male, 70%; female, 45%

INCOME (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP $7,300). GDP annual growth was 7.1%; and the inflation rate was 4.2%. People with income below poverty level were 25%

LOCATION: North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea between Morocco & Tunisia.

LAND USE: arable land, 3%; pasture13%; forest, 2%; desert & mountain, 82%. Irrigated land is about 1,900 square miles,

TOPOGRAPHY: The country is made up of narrow coastal plains, some mountains and the balance is a high plateau, part of the Sahara.

WATER: rainfall is less than 8 inches except the coast, 25 in

CLIMATE: Arid to semi-arid with mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along the coast. The high plateau has cool winters and hot dry summers.

NATURAL RESOURCES: Petroleum, Natural Gas Iron ore, Phosphorous, Uranium

GOVERNMENT: Democratic form with assembly and president. 2004 election gave government in power a landslide victory and charges of vote fraud. There are signs of the development of a more democratic government. *

RELIGION: Sunni Muslim (state religion) with small Christian minority.

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 24.5 bil Import 12.55 bil Surplus 12 bil.

OVERVIEW: Petroleum is the major base of the economy. Current major problems include soil erosion from poor farming practices, desertification, poor control of waste, leading to pollution of rivers and coastal waters of the Mediterranean. Mountainous areas are subject to severe earthquakes Family planning and expansion of the health system are vital keys to the future.

ANDORRA (Europe)

181 sq. miles (1/7 the size of Rhode Island)

POPULATION (2009) 83 Th. (22025) 85 Th. (2050) 74 Th.

POPULATION GROWTH: estimated growth .40% in 2005.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: In 2000, life expectancy was 83.5 years

15% of the people in 2005 were under the age of 15 and 13% were over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 4.00 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2005 there were 559 physicians and nurses. Major causes of death are typical of the aging process. HIV0AIDS prevalence is under.01%

CAPITAL: Andorra la Vela

LANGUAGE: Catalan. French & Spanish are also spoken


INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $20,800; growth, 2.8: inflation, 4.5%

LOCATION: It is a landlocked country on the southern slopes of the Pyrenees Mountains. It shares borders with Spain and France. The land is mountainous and about ¼ forested. Because of extensive lumbering, the country must deal with soil erosion.

LAND USE: arable land, 2%; pasture, 56%; forest, 22%; other (mountain), 20%.

TOPOGRAPHY: Andorra has several valleys formed by branches of the Rio Vela. Elevation ranges from 3,0000 to 9,000 feet. Winters are severe and upper valleys are snowed up for several months each year. There is very little arable land. The major crop is tobacco and much of the industry involves tobacco or the brewing of various alcoholic beverages.

CLIMATE: snowy cold winters, and warm, dry summers

GOVERNMENT: democracy. Moves are being made to modernize political and social structure to join the European Union.

RELIGION; Roman Catholic

NATURAL RESOURCES: water, timber and iron ore

WORLD TRADE: no figure

OVERVIEW: Almost 80% of GDP involves tourism. Many residents are French and Spanish immigrants seeking employment. Economic downturn in Europe is adversely affecting Andorra. Spain is now heavily in debt and this may seriously impact Andorra*


ANGOLA (Africa)

481,354 sq. mi (almost twice the size of Texas)

POPULATION: (2009) 12.8 mil. (2025) 17.015.6 mil (2050) 24.7 mil

U.N. estimates population for2005 at 15,370,000. World Almanac for 2006 World Almanac shows a similar pattern as 2007

POPULATION GROWTH: 2.2% in 2005.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 38.43 years

46% of the people were under 15 years of age in 2005 and 2% were over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2004 was 187 per 1,000 live births, the highest in the world. In 2004 there were 77 medical personnel per 100,000 people. Major health problems: Yellow fever, cholera and aids. HIV positive rate in 2005 was 3.90 per 100 people. Malnutrition affects nearly 555% of all children under 5 years of age. Less than half the population has access to safe drinking water. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2003 was 3,90 % of the adult population

CAPITAL: Luanda.

LANGUAGE: Portuguese (official language) and various local languages in many dialects

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 56%; female, 28%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) $2,500; current annual growth, 14.1%, people with income below poverty level, 70%

LOCATION: bordering the South Atlantic between Namibia, Zaire, Zimbabwe and Botswana

LAND USE: Arable land, 2%; pasture, 23%; forest, 43%; arid, 32% TOPOGRAPHY: Along the coast is a broad tableland that is about 3,300 feet above sea level. A large interior plateau rises up to 6,000 feet. The highest point is Mt. Moco at 8,500 feet in the Humboldt Range.

CLIMATE: The climate is wet & tropical along the North shore and proceeds to a hot dry climate in the Southeast. Rainfall ranges from 13 inches in the Southeast to over 50 in the Northwest.

GOVERNMENT: Civil War has been the norm. No current information. There is an active independence movement in the oil-rich province of Cabinda.

NATURAL RESOURCES; petroleum, iron ore, phosphorous, copper, & other ores.

RELIGIONS: indigenous beliefs, 47%; Catholic, 38%; Protestant, 15%

WORLD TRADE: exports, 9.6 bil import 4.1 bil Surplus, 5.5 bil.

OVERVIEW: Subsistence agriculture provides work for 80% of the people. Oil provides 60% of GDP. Only a part of exports benefit the people. The high birth rate will create serious difficulties in the near future. The population growth and the spread of AIDS must be addressed. There will be a serious shortage of work for the labor force in the near future unless more land can be made arable. *



171 sq. males (1/7 the size of Rhode Island)

POPULATION: (2009) 85 Th. (2025) 105 Th. (2050) 122Th.

POPULATION GROWTH: Population growth in 2005 was under .0%. The people are almost entirely of African descent.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 71.9 years.

26% of the population is under 15 years of age and 8% is over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 22 per 1,000 live births. In 2004 there were approximately 365 physicians, dentists and nurses. Leading causes of death are cancer, cardiovascular disease, and trauma. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2000 was about 0.5% of adult population.

CAPITAL: St Johns, with a population of over 30,000.


LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 90%; female, 88%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $11,000; annual growth, 3%; inflation, 0.4%.

LOCATION: Caribbean Sea Northeast of Puerto Rica

LAND USE: Arable land, 18%; pasture, 7%; forest, 16%; other, 59%.

TOPOGRAPHY: Productive land is about 40% of total. The islands are partly volcanic and partly coral. Barbados is a coral island.

CLIMATE: Temperatures average about 75. Rainfall is about 540 inches a year. The islands are subject to periodic droughts. Water management is a particular concern.

GOVERNMENT: Democratic, patterned after the British model. Election was held in 2004 with the defeat of the government in power.

RELIGION: Anglican and Roman Catholic.

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export. 40 MIL. Import, 357 MIL. Deficit, 267 MIL

Tourism is an important part of the economy.

OVERVIEW: Current economic conditions are not favorable. Economy is locked in to the tourist trade. A downturn in tourism would be immediately felt in the islands. The United States is a major supporter of the economy. Rising of the ocean level may seriously impact Barbados. Climate changes are forecast that will include more and more violent hurricanes. Population growth is of major concern. *



1,073,518 sq. mi. (4 times the size of Texas)

POPULATION: (2009) 40 mil. (2025) 47 mil. (2050) 53 mil

POPULATION GROWTH: Under 1% with a tapering off after 2025.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 75.9 years.

27% of the population in 2005 was under 15 years of age and 10% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 15 per 1,000 live births. In 2005 there were 620 physicians, dentists, and nurses. No major health problems apart from AIDS were indicated. HIV-AIDS prevalence was 0.70% of the adult population.

CAPITAL: Buenos Aires

LANGUAGE: Spanish (official), English, German, Italian & French.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 96%; female, 92%

INCOME: (2005, CIA estimates), per capita GDP, $11,600; current growth rate, 2%; inflation, 11%.

LOCATION: Southern South America bordered on West by Chile and North by Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazil, and Uruguay.

LAND USE: arable land, 9%; permanent crop, 4%; pasture, 52%, forest, 22%; other, 13%.

TOPOGRAPHY: The Western border area, the Andean area covers about 30% of Argentina. Patagonia, part of the lowlands, extends to the far South and is partly arid. The lowlands are generally from 400to 2000 feet above sea level. Large areas are cattle land and other areas grow wheat and other crops.

CLIMATE: The climate is generally temperate but there are great variations from Buenos Aires to the southern Steppes and desert. Which are hot in summer and cold in winter.

GOVERNMENT: Republic system with a house of representatives and executive branch. At numerous times in the past, the power of the legislature has been suspended by a coalition with the military. Free elections were held in 2004 with a new party in power.

RELIGION: Roman Catholic, 90% but only about 20% participating.

NATURAL RESOURCES: fertile plains of the pampas, lead, tin, zinc, iron ore, petroleum, and uranium.

WORLD TRADE (2004) Export, 29.6 bil. Import, 13.3 bil. Surplus, 16.3 bil.

OVERVIEW: The key to future prosperity of Argentina lies in the wisdom of the government leaders and control of the rate of inflation. . It is a bright spot on the World scene. Control and treatment of HIV-AIDS is vital. Desertification is forecast as the climate changes. This would seriously impact the Pampas, the major pastureland of Argentina. *


ARMENIA (Europe)

11,506 sq. mi. (Larger than Maryland)

(Former Soviet state)

POPULATION: (2009) 2.9 mil. (2025) 3.0 mil. (2050) 2.9 mil

POPULATION CHANGE: little change expected

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 71.55 years.

22% of people in 2005 were under 15 and 11% were over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 22 per 1,000 live births. In 2004 there were 700 physicians and nurses per 100,000 people. Heart disease is the most difficult health problem at present. HIV-AIDS prevalence is under 0.1% of the adult population.

CAPITAL: Yerevan

LANGUAGE: Armenian, 96%.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 99%; female, 98%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $5,100; current growth, 8%; current inflation, 2.4%; people with income below poverty level, 45%.

LOCATION: Landlocked; Southeast Asia, South of Georgia, East of Turkey, North of Iran & West of Azerbaijan. It is a new country from the former Soviet.

LAND USE: Arable land, 17%; Permanent crop, 3%; Pasture, 20%; Desert and mountains, 60%.

TOPOGRAPHY: High Armenian plain with mountains. Fast flowing rivers with fertile land in the valley of the Aras River.

CLIMATE: Hot summers & Cold winters.

NATURAL RESOURCES: copper, zinc, molybdenum, alumna.

GOVERNMENT: Nominally democratic. Some riots occurred during last presidential election.

RELIGION: Armenian Orthodox, 94%.

WORLD TRADE (2004) Export, 786 mil. Import, 1,180 mil. Deficit, 394 mil.

OVERVIEW: At 20 years of existence, it is difficult to assess the future. At present, the country has an unfavorable balance of trade with little promise for the near future. Internally, the country is not doing too badly, with a potential of developing hydropower. Global Warming is expected to cause the extent of desert. *



2,988,902 sq. miles (85% the size of the U. S.)

POPULATION: (2009) 21 mil. (2025) 25 mil. (2050) 29 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: 0.7% Insignificant

LIFE EXPECTANCY: life expectancy in 2005 was 80.3 years.

20% of the population in 2005 was under age of 15 & 16% over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 4.69 per thousand live births. Public health system is one of the finest in the world. There are over 1300 physicians per 100,000 people. Major diseases and cause of death are cardio-vascular disease and cancer. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2008 was under 0.2%.

CAPITAL: Canberra

LANGUAGE: Australian English

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 100%; female, 100%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $32,000. Current growth rate, n.a.; inflation, n.a.

LOCATION: South of Indonesia, New Guinea. Island nation with one province, Tasmania. A wide shallow channel to the South.

LAND USE: Arable land, 6%; pastures, 58%; forests, 14%; arid, 22%.

TOPOGRAPHY: Country is mostly low plain with a large desert in the middle, a fertile plain in the southeast, and tropical and subtropical in the northeast. A mountain range divides the southeast from the arid and semiarid areas.

CLIMATE: generally arid to semiarid; temperate to South & East. Tropical in North. A serious long –lasting drought in the South has seriously impacted total agricultural output. Floods in 2011 will have a long-term impact in the Northeast coastal areas.

GOVERNMENT: House of Commons and Prime Minister.

RELIGION: Anglican, 20%; Roman Catholic, 26%; other Christian, 24%. Unspecified, 30%.

NATURAL RESOURCES: bauxite, coal, iron, copper, tin, silver, uranium, lead, zinc, gas, petroleum.

WORLD TRADE: (2005) Export, 70 bil. Import, 84 bil Deficit, 14 bil.

OVERVIEW: Prosperous Western-style Capitalist economy. Its location allows it to strictly control immigration. Its overall outlook for the future will depend on weather and Global Warming. Oceans are rising, causing dislocation of the inhabitants of several Pacific countries. Many are seeking relocation in Australia.

Australia lists 15 droughts in the 19th Century, at least eight major droughts in the 20th Century, and the current 7-year drought in the 21st Century.

The organization “Sustainable Population Australia” believes that Australia, the driest inhabited continent, cannot sustain present population growth without suffering from overpopulation. Drought in Australia, Wikipedia, 8/22/2010.

. Suggested reading: “Water is Life” National Geographic, April, 2010 *


AUSTRIA (Europe)

32,378 sq. mi. (Smaller than Maine)

POPULATION: (2009) 8.2 mil. (2025) 8.1 mil (2050) 7.9 mil

POPULATION GROWTH:: static, with gradual decline after 2025.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 78.9 years.

16% of the population was under 15 years of age and 15% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 4.66 per thousand live births. In 2004 there were 913 physicians and nurses per 100,000 people. Cardiovascular, cancer, and respiratory ailments are common to an ageing population. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 0.30% of the population,



LITERACY: total population, 99%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) $32,000; current growth, 1.9%; inflation, 2.3%; people with income below poverty level, 4%

LOCATION: Central Europe, South of Germany & Czech Republic, West of Hungary, North of Serbia and East of Switzerland.

LAND USE: Arable land, 17%; Pastureland, 27%; forests, 39); mountains, 17%.

TOPOGRAPHY: West and South are mountainous and the East is hilly.. The valley of the Danube is along the South border.

CLIMATE: Temperate with moderate, snowy winters and mild summers.

GOVERNMENT: Federal Republic with democratically elected Parliament. The Chancellor is usually a member of the leading party. Elections are every 4 years or sooner if called for by a vote of no support.

RELIGION: Roman Catholic, 885%; Protestant, 6%; other, 6%.

NATURAL RESOURCES: timber, magnesium, lignite, aluminum, lead, coal, copper, hydropower.

WORLD TRADE: (2005) Export, 89.2 bil. Import, 91.5 bil. Deficit, 2.3 bil.

Tourism is also a factor.

OVERVIEW: It has a population with a strong work ethic and a stable government. Tourism gives it a comfortable economic outlook. The prevalence of AIDS needs to be addressed. Tourism continues to be important. *



33,436 sq. miles (the same size as Maine)

(former Soviet state)

POPULATION: (2009) 8.2 mil. (2025) 9.3 mil.; (2050) 10.0 mil

POPULATION GROWTH: 0.93%. Population growth is expected to level off after 2025.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: life expectancy in 2005, 63.3 years.

26% of population in 2005 was under l5years of age and 7% over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 81.74 deaths per 1,000 live births. About 1,100 doctors & nurses per 100,000. 99% of all children over 1 year of age are immunized for contagious diseases. Major diseases are diphtheria, tuberculosis, hepatitis A, acute respiratory infections, and diarrhea. HIV-AIDS prevalence was less than .2% of the adult population in 2008.


LANGUAGE: Azeri, 89%; Russian, 3%; Armenian, 2%; other, 6%.

LITERACY: (can read & writer) male, 99%; female, 95%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates): GDP per capita, $4,000; annual growth, 1.8%; inflation, 1.2%; people with income below poverty level, 45%.

LOCATION: Landlocked: Southwestern Asia bordering the Caspian Sea. Between Iran and Russia Northeast of Armenia, South of Georgia,

LAND USE: Arable land, 18%; pastures, 25%; arid & mountain, 53%; other, 4%.

TOPOGRAPHY: Large flat lowland, much of it below sea level with Caucus Mountains to the North. uplands are to the West

CLIMATE: dry, semiarid steppes.

GOVERNMENT: Dictatorship by edict: Constitutional with Sheikh Hamad Isa al-Kkhilfa as king. hereditary monarchy. 2002 elections were conducted to favor the YAP majority party with irregularities observed. 2008 election was boycotted because of restrictions.

RELIGION: Muslim, 93%; Russian Orthodox, 3%; Armenian Orthodox 3

NATURAL RESOURCES: Iron, nonferrous metals

WORLD TRADE: (2005) Export, 2,805 mil. Import, 2,6 surplus, 200 mil.

OVERVIEW: The Country suffers from severe land, water, and air pollution, dating back to the Russian rule when production was paramount. Overuse of irrigation, pesticides, and defoliants in the production of cotton. All drainage to the Aral Sea was used for irrigation. The lake has been destroyed for commercial purposes and gradually disappearing. *


BAHAMAS (Latin Am.)

5,358 sq. miles (larger than Connecticut)

POPULATION: (2009) 308 Th. (2025) 349 Th. (2050) 371 Th.

POPULATION GROWTH: An aging population is expected to decline after 2025.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 65.5 years.

30% of the people are under 15 and 5% are over 65.

HEALTH: Infant m mortality in 2005 was 25.22 per thousand live births. In 2005 there were 565 physicians, dentists and nurses per 100,000 people. The most common causes of death were diseases of the circulatory system, followed by communicable diseases. In 2003, 3% of all adults are HIV positive, presenting a major health problem.


LANGUAGE: English is the spoken and official language.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 90%; female,89%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $18,800; current economy growth, 0.03%; inflation, 0.05%. people with income below poverty level, n.a.

LOCATION: East of Florida in the Atlantic Ocean.

LAND USE: Arable land, 1%; forests, 32%; hills & swamps, 67%.

TOPOGRAPHY: The land is outcroppings of 2 banks, and is mostly lowland and swamps, and a number of lakes. There are low, flat coral formations and rounded hills.

CLIMATE: tropical marine


RELIGION: Baptist, 322%; Anglican, 20%; Roman Catholic, 19%

NATURAL RESOURCES: Salt and Argonite

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 617 mil. Import, 1,614 mil. Deficit, 997 mil.

OVERVIEW: Tourist trade is vital to the Bahamas. Of special concern is the decay of coral reefs and handling of waste. On the financial scene, money laundering is an ongoing problem. AIDS control and treatment need to be a priority. Rising ocean levels will impact the country by the year 2100.


BAHRAIN (Middle E.)

268 sq. miles (1/4 the size of Rhode Island)

POPULATION: (2009) 829 Th. (2025) 868 Th. (2050) 980 Th.

POPULATION GROWTH: 1.0% population control is critical

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 72.3 years.

28% of people in 2005 were under 15& and 6% were over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 17.27 deaths per 1,000 live births. There are about 60 doctors & nurses per 100,0000 population. Medical services are free to all the population. Aids among women age 20 to 45 has doubled in 2 years. Major diseases are malaria and AIDS. HIV-AIDS in 2008 was 3.0% of the adult population, epidemic proportions.


LANGUAGE: Arabic, Gulf dialect. English is widely understood.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 89%; female, 77%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $20,500; current economic growth, 5.6%; inflation, 6.7%.

LOCATION: A group of 15 islands in Western Persian Gulf. The main island is linked to Saudi Arabia by causeway and bridges.

LAND USE: Arable land, 2%; permanent crop, 2%; pasture, 6%; desert, 90%

TOPOGRAPHY: Low rolling hills with numerous cliffs and wadis. The lesser islands are low and sandy.

WATER SOURCE: Rainfall is less than 4 inches per year and occurs in the First quarter. There are natural springs and artesian wells on the main island. Potable water is of major concern and will be critical in the future.

CLIMATE: Summers are hot and humid and winters are fairly cold.

GOVERNMENT: Paternity although nominally a republic. Political parties are illegal. Women may vote and outnumbered the men in the 2002 election.

RELIGION: Muslim, 83%; Hindu, 15%.


WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 6.4 bil. Import, 5.1 bil. Surplus, 1.3 bil.

OVERVIEW: Total income depends on oil. A well-developed refinery offers income even if oil production should lag. Desertification is occurring because of misuse of land. Bahrain is also attempting to establish itself as a trading and financial center. The availability of potable water will ultimately define the future of the country. *

An uprising in 2011 by the Shiite majority against the Royal family and a Sunni ruling class was put down with the assistance of troops by Saudi Arabia. Democratic elections would change the country from Sunni to Shiite. American Legion Magazine, March 2012.



55,598 sq. miles (The size of Illinois)

POPULATION: (2009) 156 mil. (2025) 193 mi. (2050) 233 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: 1.44%. Bangladesh already suffers from overpopulation. Further growth will have serious international consequences.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 62 years.

35% of the population in 2005 was under 15 years of age and 3% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 67.6 deaths per 1,000 live births. There are about 47 doctors & other health workers per 100,000. Infant ;mortality is 63 per thousand live births. Malaria, tuberculosis and other communicable diseases are endemic. A new strain of cholera is a threat. HIV is not a major problem. Malnutrition in children under 5 is 59% in 2005. HIV-AIDS in 2003 was 0.2% of the adult population.


LANGUAGE: Bengaliof Indo-Aryan subgroup

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 47%; female, 22%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $2,100; economic growth rate, 5.2%; inflation, 6.7%; people with income below poverty level, 45%.

LOCATION: On the Bay of Bengal and shares West and North boundaries with India and on the East with Burma.

LAND USE: Arable land, 67%; pastures, 4%; forests, 16%; and other, 13%.

TOPOGRAPHY: Most of Bangladesh is lowland, much of that is in the delta of the confluence of Ganges and Brahamputra rivers.

RIVERS: Ganges, Januna (Brahmaputi), & Meghna which form the Padma in the lower flood plain; a few feet above sea level. Virtually all snow melt of the Himalayas passes through the Bangladesh flood plain.

WATER: There is too much water, much of it unsafe to drink.

CLIMATE: Tropical. Rainfall ranges from 47 to 143 inches, mostly from August to October. Occasional cyclones do great damage and sometimes cause thousands of deaths. The very rich delta area floods annually, preventing permanent living areas..

GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary Democracy with President as nominal head of state and a Prime Minister as chief executive. A large number of opposition leaders, slated to replace the current government, were arrested, resulting in some violence. Some leaders propose adopting Islamic Law.

RELIGION: Muslim, 86%, (mostly Sunni); Hindu, 12%

NATURAL RESOURCES: Natural gas & timber

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 6.71 bil. Import, 9.45 bil. Deficit, 2.56 bil.

OVERVIEW: The government is addressing the problem of overpopulation. The question is whether it will succeed. Religion will play a major part in success or failure of efforts. Special concerns include a falling water table in the North, decline of fishing because of the effect of the use of pesticides and the farming of lowlands by the landless, which are in danger whenever there is a storm. Global Warming is expected to increase the intensity and number of storms and a rise in ocean levels will mean less land. *


BARBADOS (Latin Am.)

166 sq. miles (1/8 the size of Rhode Island)

POPULATION: (2009) 285 Th. (2025) 297 Th. (2050) 2824 Th.

POPULATION GROWTH: Little change is anticipated.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy was not given.

22% of the population in 2005 was under 15 years of age and 12% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 11.72 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2004 there were 2,500 cases of HIV positive. HIV0AIDS prevalence was 1.5% of the adult population. (World Almanac (2010) reports HIV rate of 12%)

CAPITAL: Bridgetown


LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 99%; female, 99%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates). Per capita GDP, $6,800; economic growth rate, 3.8%; inflation, 3.%

LOCATION: Island between the Caribbean and the North Atlantic.

LAND USE: Arable land, 77%; meadows, 9%; other, 14%.

TOPOGRAPHY: The island is almost entirely surrounded by coral reefs. From Mt. Hillaby at 1,102 feet the land falls away in terraces to a coastal flat.

WATER: rainfall ranges from 40 to 90 inches. There are many small streams.

CLIMATE: It is a tropical climate tempered by constant sea breeze from the Northeast and Southeast.

GOVERNMENT: Kingdom. Two- house legislature and a Governor General who is appointed by England. It is recognized as a sovereign state.

RELIGION: Anglican, 70%. The rest are of many faiths.

NATURAL RESOURCES: Petroleum, fishing, natural gas

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 206 mil. Import, 1,039 mil. Deficit, 833 mil.

OVERVIEW: Because of overcrowding, the government encourages emigration. A continuing problem has been soil erosion in the area of high rainfall, and mud slides. Of special concern is the waste being dumped by passing cruise ships. Long-term economic prospects are not encouraging. Rising ocean levels pose a special threat. *


BELARUS (Europe)

80,155 sq. miles (the size of Kentucky)

(former Soviet state)

POPULATION: (2009) 9.7 mil. (2025) 9.0 mil. (2050) 7.7 mil


LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 68.72 years.

16% of the population was under 15 years of age and 14% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 13.37 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2004, there were 1650 physicians, dentists, and nurses. The major concern was the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear fallout with long-term radiation. 10,000 people are HIV positive. HIV-AIDS prevalence was about 0.3% of the adult population in 2004.


LANGUAGE: Belarus & Russian

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 99%; female, 96%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates): per capita GDP, $7,000, economic growth rate, 7.6%; inflation, 11.3%; people with income below poverty level, 27%.

LOCATION: bordered by Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and Ukraine

LAND USE: Arable land, 29%; pastures, 15%, other (mostly marshland), 55%

TOPOGRAPHY: The land is generally flat and consists mostly of marshland.

WATER: Rainfall averages between 22 and 26 inches per year.

CLIMATE: Winters are cold and summers are cool and moist.

GOVERNMENT: Dictatorship by Aleksander Lukashenka since 1994. Election in 2004 was marked by repressive measures by the government in power. KGB, secret service, is accused of extensive murder and torture. (2010)

RELIGION: Eastern Orthodox

NATURAL RESOURCES: Forest products and peat.

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 9,4 bil. Import, 11.1 bil. Deficit, 1.7 bil.

OVERVIEW: Belarus is the most well developed of the former Soviet states with an industrial complex that employs 40% of work force. Air pollution is a problem being dealt with. In the southern part of the country there is radiation contamination from fallout from the 11986 Chernobyl Atomic Plant meltdown. Soil has also been polluted by overuse of pesticides. A break with Russia has quadrupled fuel prices and the country is suffering from inflation and unemployment. A turn toward democracy is required before aid from the EU is forthcoming. *


BELGIUM (Europe)

11,787 sq. miles (a little larger than Maryland)

POPULATION: (2009) 10.4 mil. (2025) 10.5 mil. (2050) 9.9 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: none projected

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 79 years.

17% of population was under 15 in 2005 and 17% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 5 per 1,000 live births. In 2004 there were 1652 physicians, dentists and nurses per 100,000 people. Nearly 100% of population has access to health service. HIV prevalence was .2% in 2009.

CAPITAL: Brussels

LANGUAGE: 3 official languages: Flemish, French, & German. Various provinces have one of the three.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male population, 99%; female (est.) 99%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates): per capita GDP, $31,800; economic growth rate, 5.9%; inflation, 2.7%; people with income below poverty level, 4%.

LOCATION: North Sea coast with France & Luxemburg to the West, Germany to the South and Netherlands to the East.

LAND USE: Arable land, 24%; pastures, 20%; forests, 21%; other, 35%.

TOPOGRAPHY: flat coastal plain, central area is rolling hills. The far South is the Ardennes with rugged mountains and forest.

WATER: Rainfall is from 28 to 40 inches. Schelde & Meuse Rivers. Extensive irrigation. Much drinking water has been polluted by effluvium from steel mills.

CLIMATE: In the coastal region, the climate is mild & humid Inland areas have hot summers and cold winters.

GOVERNMENT: Hereditary monarchy. In practice the government is democratic..

RELIGION: Roman Catholic, 70%. No designation is given for the rest.

NATURAL RESOURCES: Coal & natural gas

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 183 bil. Import, 173 bil. Surplus, 10 bil.

OVERVIEW: It is a prosperous country with an efficient government and a stable population. Health services are adequate but attention to AIDS is necessary.


BELIZE (Latin Am.)

8,867 sq. miles (94% the size of New Hampshire)

POPULATION: (2009) 308 Th. (2025) 410 Th. (2050) 541 th.

POPULATION GROWTH: (2004) 1.7%. Rate of growth is too high to comfortably adjust economy. Ultimately, it will become impossible to cope internally.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 68 years.

36% of the population is under 15 years of age and 4% is over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 25 per 1,000 live births. As of2004 there were approximately 290 physicians and nurses per 100,000 people. Of public concern are cholera and Aids. HIV-AIDS prevalence was 2.40% of adult population in 2005.

CAPITAL: Belmopan

LANGUAGE: English (official), Everyone speaks Creole., also Spanish

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 91%; female, 91%

INCOME: (2005cCIA estimates) per capita GDP, $2,700, economic growth rate, 3.8%; inflation, 3.0%; people with income below poverty level, 11%. (Estimate is much higher)

LOCATION: Caribbean coast of Central Am. It is bordered on the North by Mexico & West by Guatemala

LAND USE: Arable land, 2%; pastures, 2%,, forest, 44%; other (swamps & mountains), 52%

TOPOGRAPHY: flat, swampy coastal plain with low mountains in the South.

WATER: Rainfall ranges from 50 in the North to over 150 inches in the South.

CLIMATE: subtropical and humid, tempered by predominant NE trade winds. Occasional hurricanes cause severe flooding.

GOVERNMENT: Parliament and Prime Minister

RELIGION: Roman Catholic, 58%; Protestant, 30%; Anglican, 12%

NATURAL RESOURCES: timber & fishing

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 208 mil. Import, 501 mil. Deficit, 293 mil.

OVERVIEW: tourism is an important part of the economy. Exports are mainly timber products and farm products. Of special concern are deforestation and pollution from sewerage and runoff from industrial plants. The debt of the government is very high and attempts to resolve it are being challenged. Incidence of AIDS has reached epidemic proportions. *


BENIN (Africa)

43,474 sq. miles (the size of Pennsylvania)

POPULATION: (2009) 8.8 mil. (2025) 13.6 mil. (2050) 22.1 mil

POPULATION GROWTH: 2.1¾%. Fertility rate per woman, who attains the age of 45, in 2004 was 6.1 children. Neither economy nor social organization can long cope with population growth at this rate.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 53 years.

44% of the population is under 15 and 3% is over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2004 was estimated at 81 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2004 there were 31 physicians and nurses per 100,000 people. 65% of the people have safe water but only 25% have adequate sanitary facilities. 25% of children under 5 are malnourished. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2003 was 1.9% of adults.

CAPITAL: Porto-Novo

LANGUAGE: French (official); Fon & Youba

LITERACY: (can read & write) males, 32%; females, 10%. Literacy rates are among the lowest in the world.

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $1,200; economic growth rate, 3.2%; inflation, 3.5%; people with income below poverty level, 35%.

LOCATION: Western Africa, bordering N. Atlantic, between Nigeria & Togo.

LAND USE: Arable land, 12% pasture, 8%; forests, 35%; other, 45%

TOPOGRAPHY: Terrain is mostly flat to hills & low mountains.

WATER: Rainfall is 37 to50 inches per year.

CLIMATE: Tropical & humid; semiarid in North.

GOVERNMENT: National assembly

RELIGION: Indigenous beliefs, 70%; Muslim, 15%;Christian, 15%.

NATURAL RESOURCES: Limestone, marble & timber.

WORLD TRADE: (2005) Export 485 mil. Import 720 mil Deficit 235 mil

OVERVIEW: The country is underdeveloped and government is inexperienced. The economy depends on subsidies. There is possible desertification in North because of climate change. As of 2005, the economy continues to lag behind population growth. AIDS has reached epidemic levels. In view of the spread of AIDS, the health system is inadequate. Aids will also affect population growth.*



18,147 sq. miles. (½ the size of Indiana)

POPULATION: (2009) 691 Th. (2025) 820 Th. (2050) 961 Th.

The country has a great number of refugees from Tibet, Nepal, and Assam.

POPULATION GROWTH: (2005) 2.3% Fertility rate for woman reaching 45 years of age, was 5.2 children.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 52.7 years.

40% of the population in 2005 was under 15 and 4% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was100 deaths per 1,000 live births. There were about 84 doctors, nurses, and midwives per 100,000 people. Infant mortality rate was 100 per thousand live births. Major diseases are Malaria, measles, tuberculosis, and venereal disease. HIV is relatively rare, with less than 1 case per 1,000 adults.

CAPITAL: Thinphu

LANGUAGE: Dzongkha (official language). Other Tibetan & Nepal dialects are also spoken.


INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $4,200; economic growth rate 5.3%; inflation, 3.0%/

LOCATION: small landlocked country in Himalayas. It is West & North of India & East & South of China.

LAND USE: Arable land, 2%; pasture, 5%; forest, 70%; mountains, 23%.

TOPOGRAPHY: mostly mountainous with fertile valleys.

WATER: Rivers adequate for hydropower. There is a lack of potable water in many areas.

CLIMATE: Valleys are cool in winter & hot in summer. The mountains are cool in summer and with severe weather in winter. It is subject to violent storms from the Himalayas.

GOVERNMENT: Limited monarchy with king appointed by Legislature from the Royal heritage.

RELIGION: Lamaistic Buddhism, 75%; Hindu, 25%.

NATURAL RESOURCES: forests, hydropower, gypsum, calcium carbide

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 154 mil. Import, 196 Deficit, 42 mil.

OVER VIEW: One of the World’s least developed economies, Bhutan requires subsidy from the outside. Population growth gives little hope of easy solutions. It is landlocked and relatively isolated.*

“National Geographic” May, 1994 (pp79ff) “Kingdom in the Clouds”

Some progress has been made but resources remain largely undeveloped. People are regulated as to dress and manner. Close ties are being developed with India.


BOLIVIA (Latin Am.)

424,164 sq. miles (slightly larger than Ohio)

POPULATION: (2009) 9.8 mil. (2025) 12.5 mil (2050) 16.0 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: 1.2%2.3%. Economy will not long support this rate of growth.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was estimated at 65.3 years. 37% of the population was under 15 years of age and 4% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 55 per 1,000 live births. In 2004 there were 188 physicians, dentists and nurses per 100,000 people. An estimated 27% of children less than 5 years of age were suffering from malnutrition in 2005. HIV-AIDS prevalence was 0.2% in 2008.

CAPITALS: Sucre (legal & judicial CAPITAL) & La Paz, administrative CAPITAL)

LANGUAGE: Spanish (official), Quechua, Aymara are also official

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 88%; female, 72%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $6,800; economic growth, 3.8%; inflation, 3.0%; people with income below poverty level, 60%

LOCATION: Landlocked, it is bordered on the N. & NE by Brazil; SE by Paraguay; on the S by Argentina; on the SW by Chile & on the W by Peru.

TOPOGRAPHY: Arable land, 3%; pastures, 25%; forests, 52%; other, 20%. Bolivia has 3 geographic zones; the Andes highlands in the West, the moist slopes and valleys E. of the Andes, and the Eastern tropical lowlands.

LAKE: Lake Titicaca

WATER: Rainfall ranges from 3 inches in the extreme Southwest to adequate in the north.

CLIMATE: Bolivia lies entirely in the tropics. Weather & temperatures vary according to whether you are in the Andes, the highlands, the valleys, or at La Paz, which has the climate of Trinidad.

GOVERNMENT: Republic Universal suffrage.

RELIGION: Roman Catholic, 95%

NATURAL RESOURCES: tin, natural gas, petroleum, zinc, tungsten, antimony, lead, iron, and timber

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 1,495 mil. Import, 1,505 mil. Deficit, 10 mil.

Export of natural gas continues to grow.

OVERVIEW: Bolivia has had a long history of inflation, feudal social conflicts, and a dependence on volatile prices for its mineral exports. The overview is that a great improvement in administrative and economic experience will achieve their ends in a more prosperous future. The population increase may well create economic depression in the future. Its greatest needs are in health and education.*



19,767 sq. miles. (twice the size of Vermont)

(former Yugoslavia state)

POPULATION: (2009) 4.6 mil (2025) 4.5 mil. (2050) 3.9 mil.

U.N. estimates are 3.8 million in 2005.

POPULATION GROWTH: No appreciable change

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 78 years.

18% of the population in 2005 was under 15 years of age and 12% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 11 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2004 There were approximately 560 physicians, dentists and nurses per 100,000 people. HIV-AIDS was less than 1 in 1,000 people in 2003.

CAPITAL: Sarajevo

LANGUAGE: Serbo-Croatian


INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $6,800; economic growth, 5.2%; inflation, 1.4%; people with income below poverty level, 25%.

LOCATION: Southeastern Europe bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia.

LAND USE: Arable land, 20%; Permanent crop, 2%; Pastures, 25% forests, 30%; other, , 17%.

TOPOGRAPHY: Terrain is mountains and valleys.

WATER: No record available. The country has moderate rainfall

CLIMATE: High elevations have cool summers and severe winters. Low elevations have hot summers and cool winters.

GOVERNMENT: Federation of two countries. There continued efforts to integrate the Muslim and Christian countries.

RELIGION: Muslim, 40%; Orthodox, 31%; Catholic, 15%; other, 14%.

NATURAL RESOURCES: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, timber, wood products, chromium, lead, zinc

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 1.28 bil. Import. 4.70 bil. Deficit, 3.42 bil.

OVERVIEW: people are well educated, but the trade deficit is not promising. Of special concern have been air pollution, waste from metallurgical plants and disposal of waste. Its future is closely tied to that of the EU;.*

“National Geographic” July, 1996 (pp48-60) “Bosnia” (See also, Yugoslavia)

In 1991, Slobodan Meloseviic attempted to place Serbia over the other 5 Balkan States. Bosnia was one of 4 that broke away. The ethnic cleansing and war waged by Serbia against Bosnia resulted in many thousands of Muslims being killed and 60 percent of all homes in Bosnia were either damaged or destroyed. More than a million land mines are scattered in the countryside. U.N. intervention stopped the killing. Today is an uneasy republic with many faction harboring old grievances against each other. Divisions are more or less classified under religious belief.. There can be no clear division because the mix is countrywide..



224,607 sq. miles (7/8 the size of Texas)

POPULATION: (2009) 2.0 mil. (2025) 2.4 mil (2050) 2.9 Th.

POPULATION GROWTH: The prevalence of HIV, AIDS may change figures radically.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2002 was 33.6 years, the second lowest in the world..

39% of the population in 2004 was under 15 years of age and 3% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 54.58 per 1,000 live births. In 2004 there were an estimated 273 physicians, dentists and nurses. The major health problems are tuberculosis and malnutrition. As of 2000 17% of the children were considered malnourished. HIV-AIDS in 2003 was 37.30 per 100 adults (37.3%)

CAPITAL: Gaboron

LANGUAGE: English (official language) Setswana is the language of the people.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 32%; female, 10%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $10,100; current growth, 4.5%; inflation, 8.5%; people with income below poverty level, 47%

LOCATION: Landlocked; SW of Zimbabwe, NW & N of South Africa, and E and S of Namibia.

LAND USE: Arable land, 2%; pasture, 75%; forest, 2%; desert, 21%.:

TOPOGRAPHY: The land is predominately flat to rolling with the Kalahari desert in the South.

WATER: limited natural fresh water, rainfall ranges from 27 inches in the North to18 on the plains and less than 10 in the Kalahari.

CLIMATE: semi-arid with warm winters & hot summers

GOVERNMENT: National Assembly and President. Operation is similar to that of the British Government. Government has been free of known corruption.

RELIGION: indigenous beliefs, 50%; Christian, 50%

NATURAL RESOURCES: large resource of diamonds, salt, soda ash. Copper, iron ore, coal, potash. Its National Parks are well managed and popular. Tourists are welcome and well treated.

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export. 2.54 bil ., Imports, 1.75 bil., Surplus 79 mil

OVERVIEW: The economy is based on cattle raising and crops. Statistics seem to show favorably in the short term. All other problems of the country are submerged by the epidemic of AIDS. The major causes of the spread have been the lack of influence by women, general sexual behavior and prostitution. Continued existence of the country will depend on expansion of health facilities and universal education.*

National Audubon rates its park system, especially the delta of the Cubaango

River which lies in northern Botswana very highly National Audubon, July-August, 2012, pp. 36-43.


BRAZIL (Latin Am.)

3,300,171 sq. miles (Larger than U.S. without Alaska)

POPULATION: (2009) 199 mil. (2025) 232 mil. (22050) 261 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: nearly 1.0%. Although population growth rate is not high by world standards, the size of the country makes the increase significant.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 72 years.

29% of the population in 2005 was under 15 and 6% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 29.6 per 1,000 live births. In 2004 there were approximately 612 physicians, dentists, and nurses per 100,000 people. Health services vary widely from region to region. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2003was .70% of the adult population. In 2004 there were about 600,000 with AIDS positive (3%). (World Almanac (2010) reports a rate of 0.6%)

CAPITAL: Brasilia

LANGUAGE: Portuguese (official language) Spanish, English, French and many Indian dialects are regionally common.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 80%; female, 80%

INCOME; ((2005 CIA estimates) per capita GFNP, $12,800; economic growth, 2.8%; inflation, 13.0%; people with income below poverty level, 13%

LOCATION: Eastern South America. It covers a major part of the Continent, and with extensive coast on Central Atlantic Ocean. It shares borders with 10 South American countries..

LAND USE: Arable land, 7%; pastures, 19%; forests, 67%; other, 7%

TOPOGRAPHY: The northern part of Brazil is dominated by the Amazon River and its tributaries and the great tropical forests through which it runs. Mountain ranges lie in the Northern part of the basin and the Andes form the Western boundary.

WATER: Rainfall in the Amazon basin is excessive but much of the South is quite dry. Over 10,000 square miles of Brazil are under irrigation.

CLIMATE: Brazil straddles the equator and much of the country is tropical. Rio de Janeiro has a relatively moderate climate. Much of the highlands along the Andes have a more Alpine climate.

GOVERNMENT: Federal constitutional republic with President and Congress. The President and Congress are seeking to improve political stability. Voting is compulsory between ages 18 and 70.

RELIGION: Roman Catholic, 70%

NATURAL RESOURCES: Hydropower, timber and a good supply of many other minerals including gold and diamonds.

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 77 bil. Import, 49 bil. Surplus, 28 bil.

Overview: Brazil has been plagued with inflation and by land abuse in the past. Its future is bright unless a possible drought seriously involves the Amazon Basin, as well as deforestation. Widespread deforestation may seriously upset the climate balance worldwide. A major problem was the need for an expansion of the health sector especially to deal with AIDS. The Administration is faced in 2010 with unreal entitlements such as retirements at age 53. The impact on Brazil’s Social Security will be far greater than the U.S. baby boom. Newsweek, November 22, 2010, p. 1. *



2,226 sq. miles (Larger than Delaware)

(Brunei Darussalam)

POPULATION: (2009) 388 Th. (2025) 499 Th. (2050) 638 Th.

POPULATION GROWTH: 1.6% Growth rate is too high for sustained economic health. The government feels the current rate is satisfactory. 30% of the population is of workers from foreign lands.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy is 71.8.

32% of the population was under 15 and 3% was over 65 years.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 13 deaths per 1,000 live births. There were 384 doctors and nurses per100,000 people. The state provides free medical service including mobile clinics to remote areas. Disease risk is from filariasis, malaria, tuberculosis, and intestinal flu. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2003 was less than 1 per 1,000 adults.


LANGUAGE: Malay is official language. English is language of commerce and is spoken widely “Handbook of the Nations” lists it as Chinese.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 92%; female, 82%

IN;COME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $2,300; economic growth rate, 3.2%; inflation, 0.3%;

LOCATION: Is on the northern coast of Borneo, and split by the Limbang River.

LAND USE: Arable land, 1%; pastures, 1%; forests, 79%; Other, 18%%.

TOPOGRAPHY: The land is mostly primary & secondary tropical forest with a narrow strip of arable land along the cost.

WATER: Rainfall ranges from 100 inches along the coast to 200 inches in the highlands. Except for pollution along the coast, water presents no problem.

CLIMATE: Tropical, with an occasional typhoon with accompanying floods.

GOVERNMENT: Independent Islamic Sultanate. Nominally a republic but no elections were held since 19962. The Sultan ha announced a review of the constitution.

RELIGION: Muslim, Islam dominates everyday life. Muslim, 60%; Buddhism, 32%; Christian, 8%.


WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 3.4 bil. Import, 1.96 Surplus, 1.44 bil.

OVERVIEW: Apart from projected population growth, Brunei will not be seriously affected for some time by world conditions. Democracy in government seems remote.*



42,823 sq. miles. (the size of Tennessee)

POPULATION: (2009) 7.2 mil. (2025) 6.3 mil (2050) 4.7 mil.

POPULATION CHANGE: -1.2% (no explanation) Fertility rate is now 1.3 births per woman.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 72 years.

14% of the population in 2005 was under 15 years of age and 17% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 13 deaths per 1,000 live births. There were approximately 833 physicians, dentists, and nurses per 100,,000 people in 2004. Bulgarians have high sugar and salt diets and one out of eight suffers from high blood pressure. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2003 was less than 1 in 1,000 adults.


LANGUAGE: Bulgarian (Slav)

LITERACY: (can read & write) males, 99%; females, 97%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $9,000; economic growth rate, 5.4%; inflation rate, 4.5% people living with income below poverty level, 15%/

LOCATION: on the Balkan Peninsula, S of Romania, W. of the Black Sea, NW of Turkey, N; of Greece & E of former Yugoslavia.

LAND USE: Arable land, 34%; pasture, 3%; pastures, 18%; forests, 35%; other, 10%.

TOPOGRAPHY: Danube tableland in N, Balkan mountains in the middle, and the Thracian plains near the Maritsa River in the South.

WATER: Average rainfall is 25 inches. The Danube is highly polluted.

CLIMATE: North of the mountains it is cold in winter and hot in summer. South of the mountains is a Mediterranean climate with moderate winters.

GOVERNMENT: Emerging democracy with National Assembly. Bulgaria has now joined NATO.

RELIGION: Bulgarian Orthodox, 85%; Muslim, 13%;

NATURAL RESOURCES: bauxite, coal, tin, zinc, coal, timber & arable land

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 7.3 bil. Import, 9.7 bil. Deficit, 2.4 bil.

OVERVIEW: The economy is still struggling to overcome the occupation and later the domination of the economy by the Soviets. The air is polluted from steel mills and the rivers are polluted from raw sewage and industrial chemicals. An aging population presents serious economic problems in the future, requiring the importation of labor.*



105,792 sq. miles (smaller than Nevada)

(Upper Volta)

POPULATION: (2009) 15.7 mil (2025) 255.4 mil (2050) 47.4 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: (2005j) 2.8% In view of the prevalence of HIV-AIDS, the growth rate is overstated. The projected current growth rate is greater than the economy could deal with. The impact of petroleum shortage and climate changes has not been adequately fact oared in.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 48.4 years.

46% of population is under 15 years of age and 3% is over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 92.24 per 1,000 live births.. There were only 4 physicians and nurses per 100,000 population in 2004. Major health problems include leprosy, sleeping sickness, yellow fever and other contagious diseases. One of the most serious is river blindness. HIV-AIDS prevalence was 4.2% of the population in 2003. About 70% of all women undergo genital mutilation.

CAPITAL: Ouagadougou

LANGUAGE: French is official language. More is spoken by 55%.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 28%; female, 9% (among the lowest in the world)

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $1,200; economic growth rate, 5.0%; inflation, 6.0%; people with income below poverty level, 45%

LOCATION: Landlocked country in W. Africa. W. of Niger; NW. of Benin; N. of Togo et al; E. & S. of Mali.

LAND USE: Arable land, 10%; pastures, 37%; forests, 26%; other, 27%.

TOPOGRAPHY: It consists of a vast plate in the Western African savanna. In the South there are highlands and valleys formed by the Bock, the White Volta & the Red Volta Rivers. The land is dry and poor.

WATER: Rainfall ranges from less than 10 inches in the North to 45 inches in the South. Rivers are alternately dry or in flood. The country suffers periodically from severe drought.

CLIMATE: The country is hot and dry and suffers from periodic droughts, especially in the North, which is in semiarid Sahara.

GOVERNMENT: democratic form of government, very inexperienced. The Military played a major role in former governments.

RELIGION: indigenous beliefs, 40%; Muslim, 50%;

NATURAL RESOURCES: manganese, limestone, marble, nickel, bauxite, lead, phosphorous

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 283 mil. Import, 634 mil. Deficit, 351 mil.

OVERVIEW: This is a worst-case scenario with a country suffering from an inexperienced leadership, population growth totally out of control, periodic droughts and a faltering general economy. The country depends heavily on outside assistance. The question is how long can this continue. Relations with Cote d’Ivory are tense. The high incidence of AIDS and the inadequate health infrastructure foretells a full-grown uncontrolled epidemic. Global Warming presents an additional challenge.*




BURUNDI (Africa)

10,747 sq. miles (larger than Vermont)

POPULATION: (2009) 9.5 mil. (2025) 15.5 mil.; (2050) 27.1 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: (2005) 2.7%. The estimate of population growth seems much too high because of the epidemic of HIV-AIDS and the lack of a medical infrastructure.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 50 years.

47k% of population in 2005 was under 15 years of age and 3% was over 56.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 64.39 per 1,000 live births. In 2004 there were approximately 33 physicians and nurses per 100,000 people. Major diseases are meningitis, sleeping sickness, malaria, bilharzias, 36% of children are malnourished. HIV/Aids prevalence was 6% of adult population in 2003.

CAPITAL: Bujumbura

LANGUAGE: Kirundi & French

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 61%; female, 40%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $700; growth rate, 5.5%; inflation, 14.0%; people with income below poverty level, 68%

LOCATION: Landlocked, on the N. by Rwanda; S by Tanzania; and on W. by Zaire

LAND USE: Arable land43%; permanent crops, 8%; pasture, 35%; forests, 2%; other, 12%.

TOPOGRAPHY: Mainly of mountains and plateaus. Ruzizi R. forms W border N. of L Tanganyika. The central plateau is about 5,600 ft. above sea level.

River: Ruzizi River

WATER: rainfall ranges from 30 to 60 inches in various areas. There have been some seasons of drought.

CLIMATE: tropical highland climate.

GOVERNMENT: President and National Assembly. One party system.. International pressure has isolated Burma but its military Junta continues in power.

RELIGION: Christian, 85%

NATURAL RESOURCES: nickel, uranium, cobalt, copper

Not yet exploited

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export 40 mil. Import 120 mil Deficit 80 mil.

OVERVIEW: Inexperienced government, relatively poor in natural resources, the country has an uncertain future. Of special concern are deforestation; soil erosion because of overgrazing and the extension of agriculture into marginal lands and global climate change. In view of the prevalence of HIV-AIDS and the poor health infrastructure, an epidemic of major proportions is inevitable.*



69,898 sq. miles (the size of Washington)

Also referred to as KAMPUCHEA

POPULATION: (2009 14.5 mil. (2025) 19.0 mil. (2050) 24.0 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: (2005) 1.67% Current projections are 2.2%.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy increased from 59 in 2000 to 71 in 2005. 37% of the population in 2005 was under 15 & 3% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 59 per 1,000 live births. In 2004 there were only about 78 physicians, nurses and dentists per 1000,000 people. Malnutrition & inadequate sanitation are major problems. Major diseases include diarrhea, respiratory diseases, dengue fever, malaria, tuberculosis, & yaws. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2003 was 2.0% of adults.

CAPITAL: Phnom Penh

LANGUAGE: Khmer, French

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 40%; female, 22%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $2,200; economic growth rate, 4.0%; inflation, 4.3%; people with income below poverty level, 40%

LOCATION: Southeast Asia, on the Gulf of Thailand, Thailand, & Vietnam

LAND USE: Arable land, 16%; permanent crop, 1%; pastures, 3%; forest, 76%; other, 4%.

TOPOGRAPHY: Mountains rise from the sea in the East. Other mountains are along the border of Thailand in the North and along the West. Much of the interior has forests. low, flat plains, and mountains in SW & N. is the Mekong River. The Tonle Sap River dominates the lives of the Cambodians.

WATER: Rainfall ranges from 50 inches in the central plains to 200 inches in the SE.

CLIMATE: Tropical, rainy, monsoon, May to October.

GOVERNMENT: Constitutional Monarchy. Election of parliament in 2003 created a furor that lasted a year. Many issues remain to be settled.

RELIGION: Theravada Buddhism, 955%.

NATURAL RESOURCES: timber, iron ore, manganese, phosphorous, hydropower.

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export 2.3 bil.; Import, 3.1 bil.l; Deficit, 800 mil.

OVERVIEW: The economy was badly hurt by decades of war. It is slowly recovering. Population growth is excessive. Logging throughout the country and strip mining in the West are reducing land productivity and habitat diversity. In view of inadequate health services, AIDS constitutes an epidemic. Cambodia lacks an adequate educational system. Female education is particularly inadequate.*



183,569 sq. miles (smaller than California)

POPULATION: (2009) 18.5 mil. (2025) 25.5 mil. (2050) 34.9 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: (1005), 1.82% current projections are equally alarming.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 51 years.

44% of the population in 2005 was under 15 years of age and 3% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 205 was 65 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2005 there were 45 physicians, dentists & nurses per 100,000 people. The need for modern hospital and clinic equipment is urgent. Malaria is prevalent in lowlands. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2003 was 6.9%; of the population,

CAPITAL: Yaounde

LANGUAGE: French & English are official languages. Many African languages and dialects are spoken.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 60%; female, 45%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $2,000; economic growth rate, 5%; inflation, 15.0%; people with income below poverty level, 45%

LOCATION: Cameroon is shaped like a triangle. It is situated on the gulf of Guinea. Nigeria is to NW, Chad is to N, & NE., Central African Republic on E., and on Congo, Gabon, & Equatorial Guinea are to the SE.

LAND USE: Arable land, 13%, permanent crops, 2%; pasture, 18%; forest, 54%: other, 13%.

TOPOGRAPHY: Coastal strip extends inland about 60 miles. Highlands

Consist of forested volcanic mountain areas. Mt. Cameroon at 13,435 feet is the only active volcano. It stands isolated along S. coast. Central highlands are a vast savannah.

RIVER: Benue River.

WATER: Along the coast, rainfall ranges between 100 &160 inches. Western slope of Mt. Cameroon receives up to 350 inches a year. Rainfall drops to 24 inches near L. Chad., The Benue R. potential source of hydropower.

CLIMATE: The climate is tropical along the cost and is drier and hotter farther inland.

GOVERNMENT: Dictatorship with Paul Biya in power in 2007. Unitary Republic since 1982, with opposition parties legalized in 1990.

RELIGION: Indigenous beliefs, 55%; Christian, 33%; Muslim, 16%

NATURAL RESOURCES:; petroleum, bauxite ore, timber, hydropower potential.

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export1.89 bil Import 1.95 bil. Deficit 60 mil.

OVERVIEW: Current issues are waterborne diseases (pervasive), deforestation, and overgrazing of pasturelands. A rapid population expansion is a major threat to the future of Cameroon. HIV-AIDS presents a major problem. *


CANADA (N. America)

3,558,0067 sq miles. (larger than U.S.)

POPULATION: (2009) 33.5 mil. (2025) 38.2 mil.; (2050) 41.4 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: (2005 .72%. Growth is greatest in major cities and is beginning to pose a problem for handling waste and providing public health benefits.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 80 years.

18% of the population in 2005 was under 15 years of age and 13% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 5 deaths per 1,000 live births. Most health costs are paid for by the government and drug cost remains low. Diseases of the heart and arteries account for 46% of all deaths in 2005. HIV/AIDS prevalence was 0.4% of the population in 2009


LANGUAGE: French in the Province of Quebec ; English in the rest of Canada except among the Northern Native tribes.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male population 97%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $32,800; growth rate, 2.8%; inflation, 2.3%; people with income below poverty level, 13%

LOCATION: Canada covers nearly all the area of N. America North of 49th parallel except for Alaska.

LAND USE: Arable land, 5%; pasture, 3%; forests, 35%; other, 57%..

TOPOGRAPHY: Canadian Ice Shield is a land of Precambrian rock scoured by glaciers. It has many lakes and forests and mineral deposits. Along the Pacific coast are the Cascades. The Rocky Mountains form the border between British Columbia & Alberta. Flat prairie land lies along the Southern border. The border between Canada and the United States includes 4 of the 5 Great Lakes and a section of the St. Lawrence River.

WATER: Canada has great quantities of water in the mountains and the Canadian Shield. The Western prairies are subject to periodic droughts and are classified as semiarid. Rainfall is less than 20 inches in the Prairie provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba..

RIVERS & LAKES:: part of the Columbia River, the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. There are a number of other large lakes to the North & NW of Ll. Superior.

CLIMATE: Temperate in the South and Arctic in the North. Large areas of the North have permafrost.

GOVERNMENT: Parliament & Prime Minister

RELIGION: Roman Catholic, 46%; United Church, 16%; Anglican, 10%; others, 28%. Catholic in Quebec, Protestant in other provinces.

NATURAL RESOURCES: hydropower, forests, petroleum and a large number of other minerals.

WORLD TRADE (2005) Export 272 bill; Import 253 bil Surplus 32 bil.

OVERVIEW: Air pollution and resulting acid rain have seriously damaged forests and affected lakes. Smelting facilities, coal burning utilities, and automobiles has been the sources of air pollution. General outlook is favorable.*



1,557 sq. miles (1 ¼ the size of Rhode Island)

POPULATION: (2009) 429 Th. 2025) 453 Th. (2050) 389 Th.

The U.N. estimates the population at 479,000.


LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 70.25 years.

42% of the population in 2005 was under 15 years of age and 6% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 47.75 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2000 there were about 82 physicians, dentists and nurses. Cape Verde, as islands, is isolated from most diseases endemic to the African continent. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2003 was 1.17% of population and is epidemic.


LANGUAGE: Portuguese is official language. Portuguese dialects are common.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 75%; female, 53%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $6,000; economic growth rate, 5.5%; inflation,(2005) 30%; people with income below poverty level, 30%.

LOCATION: It consists of about 10 islands in the Atlantic about 250 miles W. of Senegal

LAND USE: Arable land, 9%; pastures, 6%; mountains, 85%.

TOPOGRAPHY: Islands are of volcanic origin. Pico de Cano is only active volcano. elevation 9,286 feet.

WATER: There are several small streams on some islands. Average rainfall is about 12 in. Long periods of drought are common. Potable water is inadequate.

CLIMATE: Tropical & temperate. A cold Atlantic current surrounds the islands.

GOVERNMENT: Universal suffrage. Multiple party government. National Assembly. It is very stable.

RELIGION: Roman Catholic infused with indigenous beliefs.

NATURAL RESOURCES: salt, basalt rock

WORLD TRADE (2004) Exports 51 mil. Import 316 mil. Deficit 265 mil.

OVERVIEW: The economy depends heavily on tourism. With the tourist industry aimed at luxury markets and catering mainly to visitors from North America, almost 90% of food and consumer goods are imported. The Cayman 0mians enjoy one of the highest standards of living in the world. The land has suffered from overgrazing and of farming on land too steep for suitable cultivation. Health services are inadequate for the increasing number of HIV-AIDS cases.*



240,535 sq. miles (smaller than Texas)

POPULATION: (2009) 4.5 mil (2025) 5.5 mil. (2050) 6.5 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: (2005) 1.0%. projections paint a dismal picture. Economic infrastructure will not easily absorb such an increase in population. The high incidence of HIV-AIDS renders such a population increase doubtful.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 43.39 years.

43% of the population in 2005 was under 15 years of age and 4% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rater in 2005 was 87.35 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2005 there were fewer than 12 physicians and nurses per 100,000 people. 60% of the people had access to safe drinking water. Most common diseases are bilharzia, leprosy, malaria, and tuberculosis. and yaws. HIV/AIDS prevalence in 2003 was13.50% of adults. With a totally inadequate health infrastructure, the epidemic is out of control.


LANGUAGE: French, colonial; Sangho, Swahili

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 51%; female, 25%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $1,200; growth rate, 2.8%; inflation, 3.0%; people with income below poverty level, not available.

LOCATION: Landlocked. Central Africa, entirely within the tropical zone. It is S of Chad, W of Sudan, N of Zaire, and E of Cameroon.

LAND USE: Arable land, 3%; pasture, 5%; forests, 64: other, 28%

TOPOGRAPHY: The land consists of an undulating plain from 2,000 to 2,500 feet in elevation.. NW has a high granite plateau rising to 4,600 feet. In the NE the Bongo Massif rises to 4,400 feet.. Sand and clay soils are predominate. Land is well drained.

WATER: rainfall of about 70 inches, decreasing to about 31 inches in the far NE.

RIVER SYSTEMS:: Ubangi in the S & tributaries of the Shari & Logon Rivers in the N.

DESERTIFICATION: The infringement of the Sahara Desert is a threat so long as droughts continue, a possible effect of Global Warming.

CLIMATE: Tropical with hot, dry winters; hot, wet summers.

GOVERNMENT: Dictatorship with a compliant legislature Republic. A military coup overthrew the republic. U.N. pressure has encouraged a plan for free elections, which are planned for 2010..

RELIGION: indigenous beliefs, 24%; Roman Catholic, 25%; , Protestant, 25%; Muslim, 15%.

NATIONAL RESOURCES: diamonds, uranium, timber, gold, oil

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 172 mil Import, 132 mil Surplus, 40 mil.

OVERVIEW: subsistence farming and forestry are the backbone of the economy. The country has no well-developed transportation system, necessary for development. Its great animal preserves are subject to organized poaching. Current concerns involve potable water, poaching on the great animal preserve, and the encroaching of the Sahara on to pasturelands. The health problems presented by Aids dwarfs all other concern.*


CHAD (Africa)

495,753 sq. mi. (1 7/8 the size of Texas)

POPULATION (2009) 10.3 mil. (2025) 13.9 mil. (2050) 29 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: (2005) 2.1% Current projection of population growth is higher after 2025. The figure for 2050 is probably too high..

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 49.9 years.

48% of the population is under 15 years of age and 3% is over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 93.13 deaths per 1,000 live births. 60% of women have genital mutilation. There were only 20 physicians, nurses and midwives per 100,000 people. Prevalent diseases are schistosomiasis, leprosy, malaria, spinal meningitis, tuberculosis, yaws and malnutrition. Immunization is far lower than most countries. HIV positive percentage was 2.0 cases per hundred people in 2003, classified as epidemic.

CAPITAL: N’djamena

LANGUAGE: French is .he official language. Arabic is spoken in the North. Many dialects are spoken by different tribal groups.

LITERACY: (can read and write) male, 42%; female, 18%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $1,800; economic growth rate, 14%; inflation, 5.5%; people with income below poverty level, 80%

LOCATION: It is in Central African on the edge of the Sahara. It is bordered on the N. by Libya, E. by Sudan; S. by Central African Republic and the SW & W by Cameroon, Nigeria & Niger.

LAND USE: Arable land, 2%; pastures, 36%; forests, 11%; other (arid), 51%.

TOPOGRAPHY: Major feature is Lake Chad at the foot of a sloping plain and surrounded by great marshes. The Lake is fed by the Shari & Logone Rivers. WATER: Lake Chad has an average depth of 3 to 4 feet and elevation of 750 feet The land rises to an elevation of11,294 feet at Emi Koussi, an extinct volcano in the Tibesti mountains of S. Chad.

DESERTIFICATION: Droughts in Chad and the continued expansion of the Sahara to the South, threatens much of the countryside.

CLIMATE: Three Zones: Saharan with a wide range of temperatures between night and day; the Sahelian, a semi desert; and the Sudanic, with relatively moderate temperatures. The country has suffered from several droughts lasting more than 1 year.

GOVERNMENT: The President is serving a third 6-year term. He has considerable authority. The National Assembly has been established. A new constitution in 90’s uncertain as to its final structure.

RELIGION: Muslim, 50%; Christian, 25%; indigenous beliefs, 25%.

NATURAL RESOURCES: petroleum, kaolin

WORLD TRADE (2004) export, 365 mil. Import, 760-mil deficit, 395 mil.

OVERVIEW The Chad is particularly sensitive to drought. The changing climate and the apparent expansion of the Sahara Desert leaves little room for optimism. The current and projected growth in population presents a national calamity. Raiders from Sudan have killed thousands and robbed many of their possessions.*


CHILE (Latin Am.)

292,135 sq. mi. (1 1/7 the size of Texas)

POPULATION: (2009 16.6 mil. (2025) 18.65 mil. (2050) 19.4 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: 2005 – 2025, 0.7%

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 76.6 years.

24% of the population is under 15 and 7% over 665. Moderate growth is manageable.

HEALTH: Infant mortality is 8.4 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2004, there ware approximately 215 physicians, dentists, and nurses per 100,000 people. About 15% of children fall below nutritional standards. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2003 was 0.3% of adults..

CAPITAL: Santiago

LANGUAGE: Spanish is official language.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male,94%; female, 94%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates: per capita GDP, $11,300; economic growth rate, 5.4%; inflation, 4.0T; people with income below poverty level, 20%

LOCATION: It covers a narrow strip of South America on the Western slope of the Andes. Argentina is to the East and Peru is to the North.

LAND USE: Arable land, 7%; pasture, 16%; forest, 21%; other, 56%

TOPOGRAPHY: Low coastal mountains, then fertile central valleys; rugged Andes mountains in the East. The driest desert in the world lies between the coastal range and the Andes to the East. The South is subject to major earthquakes.

WATRER: Rainfall varies from under one inch to over 100 in the far South.

CLIMATE: temperate, desert in North, & damp in South.

GOVERNMENT: Republic. The political atmosphere lends itself to sudden changes in government and sometimes dictatorships.

RELIGION: Roman Catholic, 89%

WORLD TRADE: export, 20.4 bil. Import, 17.4 bil. Surplus, 3.0 bil.

OVERVIEW: Current problems are air pollution from industries and Automobiles, water pollution from raw sewage and land erosion from deforesting. Natural hazards are earthquakes and volcanic action. The economy is prosperous with varying degrees of participation or interference by the government.*


CHINA (Asia)

3,692,371 sq. miles`(6% larger than U.S.)

POPULATION: (2009) 1,338 mil. (2025) 1,453 mil (2050) 1,424 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: growth is under .1% .

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 is 72.2 years.

22% of the population was under 15 years of age & 8%; was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was estimated at 25 deaths per 1,000 live births. There are about 275 doctors & nurses per 100,000 people. A universal campaign is to eliminate rats and mosquitoes with mixed success. Major health problems are malaria, injuries and parasites. H:IV-AIDS prevalence in 2008 was under 1% of adults.

CAPITAL: Beijing (Peking)

LANGUAGES: Standard Mandarin, is based on the Beijing dialect. Yue (Cantonese) Wu (Shanghaiaanese), Minbe (Hokien-Taiwanese), are common dialects.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 87%; female, 68%

INCOME (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $8,000; growth rate, 8.0%; inflation, 0.3%; people with income below poverty level, 10%

LOCATION; Eastern Asia bordering the Yellow Sea and South China Sea It borders Afghanistan, Bhutan, Burma, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrygyzstan, North Korea, Laos, Macao, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, & Russia.

LAND USE: arable land, 10%; pasture, 31%; forest, 14%; other, 51%.

TOPOGRAPHY Eastern lowlands, 20%; a large section of plateaus in the West; A mountain chain separates the Western plateau from the East. In the far SW are the Himalayas of Tibet.

RIVERS: Yalu along Korean border; Sungari in Manchuria, Huang (Yellow) R. in the North, and the Yangtze from the Himalayas through the Western plateaus and the industrial area of Chunking and the 3 gorges to the sea at Shanghai. The Yangtze is navigable by seagoing ships to Chunking,.

WATER; Rainfall varies from 80 inches in the SW to 20 in the NE. About 30% of the country in the W receives less than 10 inches of rainfall. Water pollution is endemic.

CLIMATE: The climate varies from North temperate in Manchuria to subtropical in the South of China. Himalayan areas have an alpine climate and the West is semiarid with cold winters and hot seasons.

GOVERNMENT: Central Dictatorship, Ho Jinla has been in power since the 2002 transition to 4th generation of The Peoples Republic. Provinces and several cities (Canton, Shanghai, Tannin) do the regular administrative work and handle most projects, subject to approval.

RELIGION: officially atheistic but pragmatic with strong family orientation.

NATURAL RESOURCES: coal, iron ore, petroleum (inadequate), tin, mercury, lead, and most other necessary metals, hydropower. (see Yangtze & 3 Gorges project)

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 436 bil. Import, 397 bil. Surplus, 39 bil.

OVERVIEW: Rapid development of industry is accompanied by air pollution. The rise in living standards affects the cities but has little effect on the rural economy. The 3 Gorges dam and power project will have a major effect on South China. World concerns are the incursion of Chinese into other Asian and African countries*


COLOMBIA (Latin Am.)

439,737 sq. miles (71% larger than Texas)

POPULATION: (2009) 43.7 mil (2025) 51.2 mil (2050) 56.2 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: (2005) 1.2% although there is a projected reduction in the growth after 2025, the impact of growth will be severe.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 71.7 years.

32% of people in 2005 were under 15 years of age and 5% over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 20.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2004 there were approximately 450 physicians dentists, and nurses per 100,000 people. Many Colombians suffer from intestinal parasites. About 13% of children in 2000 were classified as malnourished. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2003 was .7% of the adults.



LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 88%; female, 88%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $7,000; economic growth rate,4.5%; inflation, 5.55%; people with income below poverty level, 59%.

LOCATION: It is on both Caribbean and Pacific. It borders Venezuela, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru & Panama.

LAND USE: Arable land, 4%; permanent crop, 2%; pasture, 29%; forest, 49%; other, 16%.

TOPOGRAPHY: The Andes divides into 2 chains dividing the country into 3 areas. Pastureland is on mountain slopes and forests in the valleys.

RIVERS: Cauca between Western & Central Andes; Magdalena separates the central and Eastern range… The two rivers merge after emerging from the mountains.

The Orinoco is East of the Andes in largely lowlands.

WATER: Rainfall averages 42 inches. It is heaviest W of the Andes. No problems indicated

CLIMATE: Climate ranges from tropical to alpine, depending on altitude.

GOVERNMENT: Republic with house and senate. It is plagued by actions of guerilla forces, some of who are supported by the drug lords.

RELIGION: Roman Catholic, 95%.

NATURAL RESOURCES: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 12.9 bil. Import, 13.1 bil. Deficit .2 bil.

Does this take into consideration the export of illegal drugs?

OVERVIEW: Control of drug trade seems central to governmental effectiveness.

Current concerns are soil damage from overuse of pesticides, soil erosion after deforestation, air pollution, especially in Bogotá from automobiles. Natural hazards include periodic drought, volcanic action and occasional earthquakes. Police and government executives are targets of drug gangs.*


COMOROS (Africa)

719 sq. miles (6/10 the size of Rhode Island)

POPULATION: (2009) 762 Th. (2025) 1.1 mil (2050 1.8 mil.


LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 61 years.

In 2005, 43% of the people were under 15 years of age and 3% were over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality is approximately 74.5 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2004 there were approximately 81 physicians, dentists, nurses and midwives per 100,000 people. Lack of animal protein is a serious problem. There is a large incidence of tuberculosis and leprosy and over half the population has malaria. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2003 was 0.12% of adults.


LANGUAGE: French & Arabic

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 50%; female, 40%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $600; economic growth rate, 3.0%; inflation, 3.0%; people with income below poverty level, 60%

LOCATION: It is a Southern African island group in the Mozambique Channel Between East coast of Africa and Madagascar.

LAND USE: arable land, 35%; permanent crops, 8%; pasture, 7%; forest, 16%; other (mountain & desert lava field), 34%.

TOPOGRAPHY: volcanic in origin with highest peak, Mt. Kartala is 7,740 ft..

CLIMATE: humid & tropical. Cyclones & tidal waves are frequent.

RAINFALL, 16.5 to 33 inches

GOVERNMENT: Republic, National Assembly

RELIGION: Islam is state religion with 99%.

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 28 mil. Import, 86 mil Deficit, 58 mil.

OVERVIEW: The country is made up of 7 islands with poor transportation, few natural resources and a young and rapidly growing population. It is not self-sustaining. Further population growth is forecast. Without population control, the future is dismal. It is one of the poorest countries in the world.*



132,047 sq. miles (Larger than New Mexico)

POPULATION: (2009) 4.0 mil (2025) 6.1 mil (2050) 9.6 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: 2.4%. In view of inadequate health services and th high rate of HV-AIDS prevalence, this estimate of growth seems unrealistic.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 52.6 years.

In 2005, 43% of the population was under 15 years of age and 3% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 87.4 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 204 there were approximately 235 physicians, nurses, and midwives per 100,0000 people. Immunization of children is about 35%, fewer than most countries. HIV/AIDS prevalence in 2003 was 4.7% of the population.

CAPITAL: Brazzaville

LANGUAGE: French is official language. Several Bantu dialects are spoken.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 71%; female, 49%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $900; economic growth rate, 4.2%; inflation, 3.0%

LOCATION: It lies astride the equator. Cameroon is to N; Central Republic of Africa on the E., and Angola on the S. The Atlantic Ocean is on the West.

LAND USE: Arable land, 2%; pastures, 29%; forest, 62%; other, 7%

TOPOGRAPHY: zones of savannah, forested, and with treeless coast.

RIVERS: Zaire R. subject to seasonal flooding.

WATER: Rainfall ranged from 41 inches to75 inches.

CLIMATE: tropical climate with high humidity & heat.

GOVERNMENT: President has arbitrary authority. Governed under constitution with National Assembly

RELIGION: Christian, 92%

NATURAL RESOURCES: petroleum, timber, potash, lead, zinc, uranium, copper, phosphorous, natural gas:

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export 2.28 bil. Import, 667 mil. Surplus, 1.6 bil.

OVERVIEW: Current issues are water pollution from raw sewage, air pollution from emissions, and hazard from seasonal flooding; Major activities are agriculture and handicraft. There are no large industries. Population growth is high. The International Monetary Fund has set up a three-year program to improve economic growth. A combination of low immunization rates and high incidence of AIDS threatens the future health of the country. Education lags far behind world standards.*



905,355 sq. miles ( 3 ½ THE SIZE OF Texas)

POPULATION: (2009) 69 mil. (2025) 110 mi. (2050) 188 mil

POPULATION GROWTH: (2005) 2.8%. In view of the prevalence of HIV-AIDS, actual growth will be far less than the above estimates. It is extremely doubtful whether or not the economy can adjust to current growth, assuming it is realistic.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectance is approximately 51.2 years.

In 2005, 48% of the population was under 15 years of age and 3% was- over65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 90.65 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2005 here were approximately 52 physicians, dentists, and nurses per 100,000 people. Common diseases are malaria, trypamosomiasis, omchoriasis, schistosomiasis, diarrheal diseases, measles, tuberculosis, malaria, leprosy, typhus, and hookworm. Malnutrition is common. Approximately 35% of children under 5 suffer from malnutrition. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2003 was 4.20% of the adult population.

CAPITAL: Kinshasa

LANGUAGE: French is official language. Upwards of 700 languages & dialects are spoken in Zaire.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 81%; female, 61%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP $5,900; growth (-4.0%; inflation, 9.0%

LOCATION: It is in Central Equatorial Africa . The western tip of it reaches to the Atlantic Ocean at the mouth of the Congo R.

LAND USE: arable land, 3%; pasture, 4%; forests, 78%; other, 15%

TOPOGRAPHY: The land is mainly on a plateau that rises from 1,000 feet to 4,000 feet above sea level near the Great Rift Valley.

RAINFALL: between 39 & 7 0 inches.

RIVERS: Congo (2nd largest river in world)

CLIMATE: Tropical, hot and humid, in the lower areas. In the center the average is 75 degrees F.

GOVERNMENT: Dictatorship. Early experience was chaotic without trained civil service. Several rebel groups continue to disrupt governmental functions.

RELIGION: Roman Catholic, 54% Protestant, 39%

NATURAL RESOURCES: Cobalt, copper, cadmium, many other minerals including diamonds, hydropower

WORLD TRADE: (2004) export, 1.41 bil. Import, 935 mil. Surplus, .5 bil.

OVERVIEW: Current concerns include deforestation, refugees from Rwanda and Sudan, air & water pollution. Although the country is large, unrestrained population growth is a serious threat. The economy has actually declined. Currently, the economy is in a serious slump, largely because of rebel groups.*

CNN (TV) (Documentary), 6 Oct, 2006: It was a report of the rape and killing of thousands of civilians in the province of Darfur and of the forced flight of many into Chad. Thousands were reported to be raped and many children seriously injured or killed by the act.


COSTA RICA (Latin Am.)

19,730 sq. miles (twice the size of Vermont)

POPULATION: (2009 4.0 mil. (2025) 6.2 mil. (2050) 9.6 mil.

U.N. reports 2005 population at 4.3 million.

POPULATION GROWTH: 1.12%. Projection suggests a high rate of growth prior to 2025 and a gradual tapering off after that. The rate is beyond economic capacity.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 76.6 years.

In 2005, 30% of the population was under 15 years of age and 6% was over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 9.9 deaths per 1,000 live births. There were 459 physicians, dentists, and nurses per 100,000 people in 2005. Immunization rates are very high and nearly100% of population has access to safe drinking water. Diseases of the circulatory system are the leading cause of death. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2003 was 0.60% of adults. A vigorous treatment program and education can control the impact of the disease.


LANGUAGE: Spanish is the official language but English is commonly spoken.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 93%; female, 91%

INCOME;: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $10,000; economic growth rate, 3.2%; inflation, 13.8%; people with income below poverty level, 18%

LOCATION: Central America with coast on both Caribbean and Pacific. It has boundaries on the North with Nicaragua and on the South with Panama.

LAND USE: Arable land, 6%; permanent crops, 7%; pastures, 45%; forests, 34%; other, 8% Total National Park land is about 10% J(the highest worldwide)

TOPOGRAPHY: highlands, , plateaus and mountains. The highest of which is Chiripo Grande, 12,500 ft. elevation.

RAINFALL: more than 100 inches.

CLIMATE: Seasons range from subtropical along the sea to temperate in the highlands.

GOVERNMENT: Democratic republic

RELIGION: Roman Catholic, 95%

NATURAL RESOURCES: hydropower, petroleum

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 6.17 bil. Import, 7.06 bil. Deficit, 899 mil.

Tourism is an additional plus.

OVERVIEW: Costa Rica is a peaceful country, and has no standing army. The major current problem of population control seems manageable. Agriculture forms 70% of exports. The current goal is to control inflation.*



124,504 sq. miles (same as New Mexico)

POPULATION: (2009) 20.6 mil. (2025) 27.6 bil. (2050) 37.1 mail.

POPULATION GROWTH: (2005) 1.6%. Population growth estimates are probably too high in view of endemic disease and inadequate health services.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was about 48.62 years.

In 2005, 41% of the people were under 15 years of age and 3% over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 90.;83 deaths per 1,000 live births. There are approximately 55 physicians, nurses and midwives per 100,000 people. About 60% of females had genital mutilation. Malaria, yellow fever, sleeping sickness, yaws, leprosy and meningitis are endemic. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 20083 was about 3.5% of the people. The health services are inadequate.

CAPITAL: Abidjan

LANGUAGE: French is official language. More than 60 African languages and dialects are spoken.

LITERACY: (can read and write) male, 44%; female, 23%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates), per capita GDP, $1,400; economic growth rate (-4%); inflation, 9.0%; people with income below poverty level, 37%.

LOCATION: South coast of western bulge of Africa. It is bordered on N. by Mali, E. by Ghana & W. by Liberia.

LAND USE: Arable land, 9%; permanent crops, (coffee) 4%; pastures, 9%; forests, 26%; other, 52%..

TOPOGRAPHY: Except for highlands in the N. the country is a large plateau, tilted gently toward the Atlantic. It is drained by 4 rivers; each flowing from N. to S.

WATER. Rainfall ranges upward from 31 inches, driest in the North. Bandana river has been dammed and a large lake (Komoe) is formed in the middle of the country.

RIVERS: Rivers are responsive to rainfall. They run low in the dry season and tend to flood in the rainy season.

CLIMATE: Tropical,, temperatures from 70 to 95, with rainy season in the summer

GOVERNMENT: Republic, multiparty. Country is split by revolution, not resolved in 2005.

RELIGION: Government is secular, traditional religions, 655%; Muslim 23%.

NATURAL RESOURCES: petroleum, diamonds, manganese, iron ore, bauxite.

WORLD TRADE:(2004) Export, 5.2 bil Import, 2.8 bil Surplus, 2.4 bil. Only a relatively small number of people benefit from the surplus.

OVERVIEW: population is growing at an alarming rate. Economy is strongly affected by coffee and cocoa process. Current problems include deforestation, pollution of rivers, and population growth. Deforestation has increased danger of flooding and damage to landforms. Revolution prevents adequate dealing with any other problems.*


CROATIA (Europe)

21,829 sq. miles (smaller than W. Virginia)

(FORMER Yugoslavia state)

POPULATION: (2009) 4.5 mil. (2025) 4.4 mil. (2050) 3.9 mil.

POPULATION STATUS: projection of a continued decline in population from a high in 1993 of 4.6 million.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 74.45 years.

In 2005, 17%% of the people were under 15 years of age and 16% were is over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 6.84 deaths per 1,000 live births. There are approximately 804 physicians, dentists, and nurses per 100,000 people. Major causes of death are related to the aging process. HIAVA-AIDS prevalence was under 1 per 1,000 adults in 2008.


LANGUAGE: Serbo-Croatian

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 99%%; female, 95%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $11,000; economic growth rate, 3.2%; inflation, 3.2%; people with income below poverty level, 11%

LOCATION: Balkan state, formerly part of Yugoslavia, & bordering the Adriatic Sea. It lies between Bosnia, Herzegovina & Slovenia.

LAMD USE: Arable land, 32%; permanent crops 20%; pastures, 18%; forests, 15%; other, 15%

TOPOGRAPHY: plains to the NE. and low mountains toward Adriatic.

CLIMATE Predominately continental with Mediterranean climate along the coast.

GOVERNMENT:: Republic with intentions of joining the European Union.

It is a member of NATO.

RELIGION Roman Catholic, 70%; Orthodox, 11%; Muslim, 12%.

NATURAL RESOURCES: oil, some coal, low-grade iron ore, bauxite, silica & clays.

WORLD TRADE: (2009) Export, 14 bil. Import, 30 bil. Deficit, 16 bil.

OVERVIEW: The country is less than 10 years old. It is heavily dependent on assistance from the European community. Problems include pollution, hazardous waste, and sewerage. A current problem is air pollution from metallurgical plants, causing acid rain that is damaging the forests. *

“National Geographic” , June,1996, (P 51) “Bosnia” (see Yugoslavia)

“Secession in June, 1991, unleashed a savage response from Belgrade, which was sympathetic to Croatia’s large Serb ethnic minority. The district of eastern Slovenia is under U.N. supervision.


CUBA (Latin Am.)

42,804 sq. miles (same size as Tennessee)

POPULATION: (2009) 11.4 mil. (2025) 11.6 mil. (2050) 10.4 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: negative 1.2%.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 is 77.23 years.

In 2005, 21% of the people were under 15 years of age and 10% were over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 is 6.35 deaths per 1,000 live births. There were about 1342 physicians, dentists, and nurses per 100,000 people. Major causes of death in 2005 were circulatory diseases, cancer and injuries. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2008 was under 1 per 1,000 people.



LITERACY: (can read & write) male population, 98%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita GDP, $3,000; economic growth rate, 3.5%; inflation, 5.0%

LAND USE: Arable land, 23%; permanent crops, 6%;j pastures, 23%; forests, 17%; other, 31%. Problem: deforestation.

LOCATION: Island, S of Florida &W. of Haiti

TOPOGRAPHY: mostly plains & rolling hills with rugged terrain in SE.

CLIMATE: subtropical, moderated by trade winds. Cuba is especially exposed to hurricanes, several of which caused serious damage in 2004.

GOVERNMENT: Dictatorship by Raoul Castro because of ill health.. Individual commercial rights have been further curtailed in 2004. The new head of government has not announced his policies. Communist State with government ownership of major works.Raoul Castro was 79 in 2011 with no prominent figure as successor.

RELIGION: nominally Roman Catholic, 83%.

WORLD TRADE: (2009) Export, 3.6 bil. Import, 14.83 bil. Deficit, 11.26 bil.

OVERVIEW: Cuba is dependent on foreign aid. The country is hampered by U.S. embargos, limiting tourism & trade. Other problems include deforestation and pollution of Havana harbor. Management of tourist facilities has been transferred to the Minister of Defense. Major trading partner is Venezuela. Fiscal problems have been exacerbated by a reduction of money received from Cubans living in the U.S.*

There was considerable unrest in 2010 because of serious economic problems Newsweek, April 26, 2010, p 11.


CYPRUS (Middle East)

3,572 sq. miles (3/4 the size of Connecticut)

POPULATION: (2009) 1.1 mil. (2025) 1.3 mil. . (2050) 1.4 mil.


LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 77.8 years.

In 2005, 20% of the people were under 15 years of age & 11% were over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was about 7 deaths per thousand live births. There are about 785 doctors & nurses per 100,000 people. No major diseases are listed. HIV-AIDS prevalence was under1 per 1,000 adults in 2008.

CAPITAL: Nicosia

LANGUAGE: Greek & Turkish are official languages, Greek is spoken in the S and Turkish in the N..

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 95%; female, 91%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates) per capita, GDP, $21,000; economic growth rate, 3% Rate of inflation not available.

LOCATION: Third largest island in the Mediterranean. It is in the extreme NE part of the Sea, S. of Turkey & E. of Syria.

LAND USE: Arable land, 40%; permanent crop, 7%; pasture, 10%; forests, 18%; other, 25%

TOPOGRAPHY: Two mountain systems flank a central plain. The mountains to the N. are old formations.

CLIMATE: for the most part, dry, sunny, & healthful.

WATER: rainfall is 12 to 16 inches. Rivers & lakes are insignificant. There is some irrigation.

GOVERNMENT: Republic, with Greek & Turkish division of administration. Cyprus joined the European Union in 2004.

RELIGION: Greek Orthodox, 78%; Muslim, 18%

NATURAL RESOURCES: copper, pyrites, asbestos, gypsum.

WORLD TRADE: (2009) Export, 1.7 bil. Import, 9.9 bil. Deficit, 8.2 bil

OVERVIEW: The economy is not self-supporting. The part of the Island dominated by the Greeks is more prosperous than that dominated by the Turks. Major support comes from Greece, Netherlands, the U. K., and United States. Greece is financially bankrupt and may no longer be able to support Cyprian economy. Turkish North applied for independence in 2009.*



30,450 sq. miles (same size as S. Carolina)

POPULATION: (2009) 10.2 mil (2025) 9.8 mil (2050) 8.8 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: negative, beginning before 2000.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 76.2 years.

In 2005, 15% of the people were under 15 years of age and 14% were over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 3.93 deaths per 1,000 live births. There were about 1346 physicians, dentists and nurses per 100,000 people. Major causes of death are related to the aging process. HIV-AIDS prevalence was under 1 per 1,000 adults in 2008.

CAPITAL: Prague (an important cultural & learning center)

LANGUAGE: Czech, Slovak

LITERACY: (can read & write) total population, 99%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates), per capita GDP, $18,000k; economic growth rate, 4.0%; inflation, 2.0%.

LOCATION: Central Europe, SE of Germany. Poland is N. & Slovakia is E.

LAND USE: not available.

TOPOGRAPHY: low hills, plains & plateau surrounded by low mountains.

WATER rainfall is from 22 to over 50 inches.

RIVER: Elbe. Some pollution from Industry/

CLIMATE: temperate with cloudy humid winters and cool summers.

GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary democrat.

RELIGION: atheist, 39%; Roman Catholic, 39%; Protestant, 5%.

NATURAL RESOURCES: Hard coal, kaolin, clay

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 46.8 bil. Import. 50.4 bil. Deficit, 3.6 bil.

OVERVIEW: Current issues are water & air pollution. Current trade deficit is partially covered by tourism. Among current problems is air pollution casing acid rain. An aging population will require later retirement and the import of labor from other countries*


DENMARK (Europe)

16,638 sq. miles (2/3 the size of W. Virginia)

POPULATION: (2009P 5.5 mil. (2025) 5.7 mil. (2050) 5.6 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: 0.3%, not significant.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 77.62 years.

In 2005, 19%$ of the people were under 15 years of age and 15% were over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality in 2005 was 4.56 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2004 there were; approximately 1334 physicians and nurses per 100,000 people. Cardiovascular diseases and cancer were the major causes; of death. HIV-AIDS prevalence in 2008 was under 0.2% of adults.

CAPITAL: Copenhagen

LANGUAGE: Danish, closely related to Swedish & Norwegian,

LITERACY: (can read & write) total population, 99%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates), per capita GDP, $33,000; growth rate, 2.2%; inflation, 1.9%.

LOCATION: N. of Germany separating Baltic & North Seas. Part of Denmark is on mainland. A major part is on the island of Jutland..

LAND USE: Arable land, 61%; pastures, 6%; forest, 12%; other, 21%%.

TOPOGRAPHY: It is all lowland with the highest point only 368 feet above sea level.

WATER: Rainfall is about 24 inches per year, evenly distributed annually.

CLIMATE: temperate with mean temperatures ranging from 32 F in February to

63 F in July.

GOVERNMENT: Limited monarchy with parliament.

RELIGION: Evangelical Lutheran, 91%.

NATURAL RESOURCES: petroleum, natural gas, fish, salt, & limestone.

Denmark is under international criticism because of failure to regulate its fishing fleets in the North Atlantic

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 64.2 bil. Import, 554.5 bil. Surplus, 8.8 bil.

OVERVIEW: The fishing fleets have come under question for over-fishing certain areas of the ocean. The country is highly integrated and is able to respond quickly to world changes. A rising ocean level threatens its future. Copenhagen is only a few meters above sea level. Its long-term future is seriously endangered by rising sea levels*



8,958 sq. miles (smaller than New Hampshire)

(formerly French Somali)

POPULATION: (2009) 725 Th. (2025) 1,016 Th. (2050) 1,397 Th.

U.N. population estimate for 2005 is 793,000.

POPULATION GROWTH: Growth is 1.7% to 1.9%, compound rate. The CIA reported the population in 1995 as 421,000. The government is attempting to repatriate 100,000 illegal immigrants, requesting them to become citizens or apply for asylum.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: In 2005, life expectancy Was only 43.1 years. In 2005, 41% of the people were under 15 years of age and 3% were over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 104.13 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2005 there were only 78 physicians, dentists. And nurses. Malnutrition is common and Malaria is endemic. HIV0AIDS prevalence in 2008 was 3.18% of adult population. In view of inadequate health services this is classed as an epidemic.

CAPITAL: Djibouti.

LANGUAGE: French & Arabic are official languages. Somali is the language of most of the people.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 63%; female, 34%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates), per capita GDP, $1,300; economic growth rate, 3.5;%, inflation, 2.0%; people with income below poverty level, 50%

LOCATION: on the east coast of Africa Bab el-Mandab, the strip of water that links the Red Sea with the Gulf of Aden. It is bordered on the N., E., &W. by Ethiopia and on the S. by Somalia.

LAND USE: Arable land, none; pasture, 9%; other (arid tablelands), 91%

TOPOGRAPHY: of volcanic origin, the country consists of a series of high tablelands, separated by low plains. There is a low plain along the sea. The plateaus rise from 1,000 to 3,000 feet in elevation& the mountains up to 6,500 ft.

WATER: annual rainfall is less than 5 inches.

CLIMATE: temperatures range from 77 F. to 95 F and humidity is high.


RELIGION: Muslim, 94%; Christian, 6%

NATURAL RESOURCES: Geothermal areas.

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 155 mil. Import, 665 mill. Deficit, 510 mil.

OVERVIEW: The economy is based on the country’s location and status as a free trade zone. One third of people are nomad herders. The rest live in the city and provide services for trans shipping and refueling of ships.. An expanding population could create havoc in the economy. Ill health and short life span is an additional barrier to a healthy economy.

Decline in oil production by the Middle East will affect the economy negatively. This, combined with population growth offers little optimism for the future*


DOMINICA (Latin Am.)

290 sq. miles (1/4 the size of Rhode Island)

POPULATION: (2009) 727 Th. (2025) 74.6 Th. (2050) 64.8 Th.

POPULATION GROWTH: not significant

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy was 74.6 in 2005.

In 2005, 289% of the people were under 15 and 8% were over 65.

HEALTH: Infant mortality rate in 2005 was 14.1 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2004 there were 570 physicians, dentists, and nurses. Because of rain and high humidity, tuberculosis and other respiratory diseases are difficult to deal with. HIV-AIDS prevalence is not listed in U.N. book of reference.


LANGUAGE: English is official Language. Nearly all natives speak a French mixed with African words.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 94^; female, 94^%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates), per capita GDP, $5,000; economic growth rate, (-0.5%); inflation, 1.0%; people with income below poverty level, 35%.

LOCATION: an island located between Guadalupe & Martinique with East shore on the Atlantic.

LAND USE: Arable land, 9%; permanent crops, 13%; pastures, 3%%; forestland, 41%; other (volcanic mountains), 34%

TOPOGRAPHY: It is the most rugged island of the Lesser Antilles, , it is a mass of peaks, ravines & ridges. Several mountains are over 4,000 ft. The highest is Mt. Diablatin at 4,774 ft.. A number of mountain cones have boiling water in them.

WATER: rainfall ranges from 80 inches on the Caribbean side to 230 inches on the wet (Atlantic) side..

CLIMATE: Mild tropical in the cold months and wet and hot in June & July.

GOVERNMENT: Republic with National Assembly & President. Attempts are being made to curb corruption in government. All citizens over 18 may vote.

RELIGION: Roman Catholic, 77%; Protestant, 15%; other Christian, 10%

NATURAL RESOURCES: geothermal areas.

WORLD TRADE: (2008) Export, 98 mil. Import, 298 mil. Deficit, 200 mil.

Tourism in 2008 was 74 mil.

OVERVIEW: Economy is dependent on agriculture, & is highly vulnerable to tropical storms & weather changes. Major suppliers are Japan and China .*



18,730 sq. mi. (3/4 the size of W. Virginia)

POPULATION: (2009) 9.7 mil. (2025) 11.9 mil. (2050) 14.88 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH: (2005) 2.0% Present projected increase is above that figure. An unknown number of the people have emigrated to the U.S.

LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy in 2005 was 71.4 years.

In 2005 ,34% of the people were under 15 years of age and 5% were over 65.

HEALTH: Infant rate in 2005 was 25.3 deaths per 1,000 live births. In 2005 there were about 456 physicians, dentists and nurses per 100,000 people. Over 70% of the people had safe water and adequate sanitary facilities. About 15% of children under 5 were considered malnourished. HIV prevalence in 2003 was 1.7% of adult population. Health services are marginal. The ability to control AIDS is in question.

CAPITAL: Santo Domingo

LANGUAGE: Spanish is the official language. Some English is spoken.

LITERACY: (can read & write) male, 85%; female, 82%

INCOME: (2005 CIA estimates), peer capita GDP, $6,500; economic growth rate, 4.4%; inflation, 4.5%; people with income below poverty level, 25%`

LOCATION: It occupies the Eastern 2/3 of the Island of Hispania. It shares the Island with Haiti.. It is almost directly E. of Cuba.

LAND USE: Arable land, 23%; permanent crops, 7%; pastures, 43k%; forests, 13%; other, 14%.

TOPOGRAPHY: generally mountainous with deserts in the extremely West. Fertile valleys are in the center & Eastern areas, separated from the coast by mountain ridges. Mount Duarte is the highest mountain in the West Indies at an elevation of 10,417 ft..

WATER: rainfall is 33 in. in the E. & 82 in. in the N. About 1,000 sq miles is land under irrigation.

CLIMATE: Temperatures range from 63 F to 84F, with cooler temperatures at high altitudes.. The country is subject to severe tropical storms.

GOVERNMENT: Republic. All citizens, 18 years or older, may vote’s

RELIGION: Roman Catholic, 95%

NATURAL RESOURCES: nickel, bauxite, gold, silver

WORLD TRADE: (2004) Export, 5.5 bil. Import, 7.9 bil. Deficit, 2.4 bil.

OVERVIEW: Population growth is the largest single threat to the economy. The deficit in 2004 is an indicator of greater problems ahead. Other current problems are damaged coral reefs, soil erosion and water shortages.*

Territories and Dependencies

Dependencies and protectorates, after World War II, were given the opportunity to hold plebiscites to determine their status ns dependencies, commonwealths, or free nations.  The territories listed below, either had no inhabitants, or chose to remain affiliated with major nations.  The costs of establishing and operating an independent country were too daunting for many to attempt.  Commonwealths choose to govern their own country but prefer a major nation to conduct their foreign affairs.  An additional advantage is a preferred position, necessary for some dependencies that are unable to manage without assistance.

The largest of these commonwealths is Puerto Rico with a population of nearly 4,000,000 people.

Washington, D.C. is frequently used as a comparison.  Washington, D.C. is 68 sq mi (177 sq km.), and area of about 10 by 7 miles. (16 by11 km).  The area of Washington, D.C. is almost exactly twice the size of Manhattan Island which is 34 sq mi (88 sq km).


AMERICAN SAMOA           Dependency of the United States

Group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand.

POPULATION:  O2009)  65 Th.   (2025)  79 Th.   (2050)

LAND AREA:  77 sq mi (199 sq km) slightly larger than Washington, D.C.

CLIMATE:  tropical, maritime modified by trade winds

TERRAIN:  5 volcanic islands. Arable land, 10%, other productive areas, 80%


ANGUILLA:               Dependency of United Kingdom

Island in Caribbean Sea east of Puerto Rico

LAND AREA:  35 sq mi (99 sq km)  ½ the size of Washington, D.C.

POPULATION:  (2007 est.)13,677; life expectancy, 74 years.

CLIMATE:  tropical, modified by trade winds

TERRAIN:  Flat, low-lying,


ARUBA                      Part of Netherlands realm

Caribbean Sea north of Venezuela

LAND AREA:  75 sq mi(193 sq km)  slightly larger than Washington, D.C.

POPULATION:  (2007 est.) 100,000; population growth, rate 1.5%; life expectancy, 71.8 yrs.

CLIMATE  tropical, marine with little seasonal change

TERRAIN: flat with a few hills;  and scant vegetation


BAKER ISLAND       Territory of the U.S.A.

Atoll in the Pacific ocean about halfway between Hawaii and Australia

LAND AREA:  5 sq mi (14 sq km)

TERRAIN:  low, nearly level coral island.  Uninhabited



BERMUDA                territory of the U.K.

Group of islands in Atlantic Ocean east of N. Carolina, U.S.A.

POPULATION:  (2009)  68 TH.  (2025)  73 TH.  (2050)  70 TH.

LAND AREA:  19 sq mi (50 sq km) about 3/10 the size of Washington, D.C.

CLIMATE:  subtropical, humid, mild, strong winds

TERRAIN:  low hills separated by fertile depressions20% forest, 80% barren


BOUVET ISLAND                territory of Norway

Island in the Atlantic Ocean southwest of South Africa

LAND AREA:  22 sq mi (58 sq km) about 3/10 the size of Washington, D.C.

CLIMATE:  Arctic

TERRAIN:  volcanic island to maximum elevation of 2,625 ft (800 m) 100% ice covered.



Island archipelago in Indian Ocean about halfway between India and Africa

LAND AREA:  24 sq mi (60 sq km) about 3/10 the size of Washington, D.C.

CLIMATE:  tropical modified by trade winds

TERRAIN:  Flat and low islands less than 13 ft (4 m) above sea level, uninhabited


BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS          dependent territory of the U>K.

Islands east of Puerto Rico between the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea.

LAND AREA:  58 sq mi (150 sq km) about 8/10 the size of Washington, D.C.

POPULATION:  (2007 est.) 23,500; population growth rate; 1.72%; life expectancy, 76.8 years.

CLIMATE:  subtropical, humid, modified by trade winds

TERRAIN:  both; coral and hilly islands; arable land, 20k%; other productive land, 40%.


CAYMAN ISLANDS:          dependent territory of the U.K.

Island group about half-way between Cuba and Honduras

POPULATION:  (2009)  49 Th.   (2025)  68 Th.  (2050)  91 Th.

POPULATION GROWTH:  rate 2.5%; life expectancy, 8 years.

LAND AREA:  80 sq mi (260 sq km) less than the size of Washington, D.C.

CLIMATE; tropical, marine, rainy summer

TERRAIN:  low-lying limestone base surrounded by coral. Reefs.  Pasture and woodland, 60%.


CHRISTMAS ISLAND        territory of Australia

Island in Indian Ocean south of Indonesia

LAND AREA:  50 sq mi (135 sq km)            about 8/10 the size of Washington, D.C.

POPULATION:  (2007 est.) 1,402; population growth rate, 0.l00T life expectancy not given.  Population has declined as people emigrate

CLIMATE:  tropical, hot & humid, moderated by trade winds

TERRAIN:  steep cliffs with central plateau.  Land is relatively unproductive.

COOK ISLANDS                 territory of New Zealand

Group of islands about halfway between New Zealand & Hawaii

POPULATION:  (2009) 11.8 Th.  (2025) 7.6 Th.  (250)  5.4 Th.

POPULATION GROWTH:  Negative; Life expectancy, 71.1 years.

LAND AREA:  93 sq mi (240 sq km)  1.3 times the size of Washington, D.C.

CLIMATE:  tropical, moderated by trade winds

TERRAIN:  volcanic islands in south and coral islands in north.  Unproductive land,


EASTER ISLAND                 island territory of Chili

LOCATION:  27 degrees S., about 2180 miles  (3510 km) W. of Chili & 1286 m (2075 km) E. of Pitcairn Island and is 27 deg S. of the equator..

LAND AREA:  It is 15.3 x 7.6 mi (24 x 12 km) and covers bout 63 sq mi (163 sq km).

POPULATION:  about 4,700 in 2009.

CLIMATE: subtropical with temperatures between 44 and 82 F.    Rainfall is about 44 inches per year with occasional heavy rainstorms.  Wind is fairly constant.

TERRAIN:  Terrain is hilly.  The island is result of volcanic action with three caldera.  Last eruption was about 100,000 years ago.  Maximum altitude is 1,620 feet (507 m.)

COMMENT:  Easter Island is a world heritage site and a national park.  Its people were Polynesian, closely related to Hawaiian and New Zealand and immigrated to the island about 2000 years ago, about the same time as Polynesians first appeared on Hawaii and New Zealand. The people developed a fair civilization prior to the time of overpopulation and eventual decimation by slave traders in the 1800’s.   Easter Island – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, May, 2010


EUROPA ISLAND                territory of France

Island in Mozambique Channel about halfway between southern Madagascar and  southern Mozambique.

LAND AREA:  11 sq mi  (28sq km)  about 2/10 the size of Washington, D.C.

CLIMATE:  tropical

TERRAIN:  not available, wildlife sanctuary


FALKLAND ISLANDS        dependency of the U.K..

Islands in the South Atlantic, east of southern Argentina

LAND AREA:  48,586 sq mi (121,700 sq km)

POPULATION::  (2007 est.) 3,105; population growth rate, 2.44%.  An estimate of life expectancy was not available.

CLIMATE:  cold, rainy, snow except January and February, strong westerly winds

TERRAIN:  rocky, hilly, mountains and some bogs, extensive plains, pasture and meadows, 99%

COMMENT:  Oil exploration has renewed Argentina claims to the Falklands.  High cost of supporting Falklands may encourage Britain to cede the Islands to Argentina.  Latin American Countries show unanimous support of Argentina claims.  Newsweek, March 15, 2010, p. 6.


FAROE ISLANDS                part of the country of Denmark

Island group about halfway from Iceland to Norway on border between the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea.

POPULATION:  (2009  289   Th.  (2025)  345 Th.  (22050)  394. th.

POPULATION GROWTH;  positive. Life expectancy, 70.4 years.

CLIMATE:  mild winters, cool summers, usually foggy and windy

TERRAIN:  rugged, rocky with cliffs along most of coast.  Almost no arable land.


FRASER ISLAND     Australian Island

LOCATION:  NE coast of Australia about 195 miles (300km) N of Brisbane on the coat of Queensland.

LAND AREA:L  The Island is 15 x 75 miles (24 x 120 km)  and about 710 sq mi (1840 sq km).

CLIMATE:  subtropical with moderate seasonal changes and a steady SE wind.

Population:: about 370 permanent residents.  It is a popular tourist  destination.  It is a national park and a world heritage site.

Terrain:  world’s largest sand island with maximum elevation of 801 feet (244 m).  The island is heavily forested and rich in minerals..  It is many large sand dunes and a great many fresh water lakes, somewhat acidic.

FAUNA:   There are about 340 known bird species and some wild horses and dingoes.

“Fraser Island” Wikipedia the free encyclopedia


FRENCH GUI NEA               overseas dependant of France

Land NE South America bordering the Atlantic Ocean

LAND AREA: 30,545 sq mi  (80,150 sq km)  slightly smaller than Indiana

POPULATION:  (2007 est.)182,300; population growth rate, 2.57%; life expectancy, 76.5 years.

CLIMATE:  tropical, humid with little seasonal change

TERRAIN:  low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and low mountains. No arable land listed with forests covering 82% of the country.


FRENCH POLYNESIA        dependency of France

Archipelago  about halfway from South America to Australia

POPULATION:  (2009  287 Th.   (2025)  245 Th.  (2050)  394 Th.

LAND AREA:  1,522 sq mi (3,941 sq km)   slightly smaller than Connecticut

POPULATION:  (2007 est.) 279,000; population growth rate, 1.46%; life expectancy, 76.3 years.

CLIMATE;  tropical but moderate

TERRAIN:  mixture of rugged mountains and coral reefs. 56% of land is utilized.  44% is mountain or too low to utilize.




Islands southeast of Africa and southwest of Australia

LAND AREA;  3,115 sq mi (7,781 sq km)

TERRAIN:  volcanic.  Not inhabited.


GAZA  STRIP:          A coastal strip between Israel and the Mediterranean Sea adjoining Egypt

            POPULATION:  (2009)  1.6 mil.;  (2025) 2.4 mil.;  (2050) 3.4 mil.

LAND AREA:  140 sq mi (390 sq km) 4 times the size of Manhattan Is.                  It is a bout 7 x 35 miles (10 x 40 km)

TERRAIN:  flat to rolling with some sand dunes.  Arable, 13%; permanent crops, 32%;  other (sand) 55%.

COMMENTS:  Although it is part of Palestine, it is controlled by a dissident element subject to Israeli policing and control of world commerce.


GIBRALTAR             territory of U>K>

Southern tip of Iberian Peninsula, bordering the strait between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

POPULATION:  (2009)  29 Th.  (2025) 30 Th.  (2050)

Many are service personnel and are not permanent residents.

LAND AREA:  2.3 sq mi  (6.4 sq km)

CLIMATE:  Mediterranean with mild winters and warm summers

TERRAIN:  a narrow coastline bordering The Rock.  There is no agricultural land.


GREENLAND            part of Denmark

Island in Arctic region off the coast of North America.

POPULATION:  (2009 58 Th.  (2025)  57 Th.  (2050)  49 Th.

POPULATION GROWTH:  Uncertain.  Great quantities of natural resources remain to be developed.  The dominion is seeking independence.

Life Expectancy is 70 years.

LAND AREA:  945,130 sq mi  (2,175,800 sq km) over 3 times the size of Texas

CLIMATE:  arctic to sub-arctic, cool summers and cold winters

TERRAIN:  a narrow coastal strip of pastureland in southwest with mountain fringe surrounding a large plain covered with about  an ice field up to a mile thick.


GUADALOUPE                     territory of France

Caribbean island southeast of Puerto Rico

POPULATION: (2007 est.)  440 Th.

POPULATION GROWTH: 1.0 %; life expectancy, 7735 years.

LAND AREA:  687 sq mi (1,780 sq km)  10 times the size of Washington, D.C.

CLIMATE:  tropical, tempered by trade winds, high humidity

TERRAIN:  Basse Terre is volcanic with interior mountains.  Grand-Terre is low limestone formation.  Most of seven islands are volcanic in origin.  15% of land is arable and 40% is pasture or forest.


GUAM                        territory of the U.S.

Island is about ¾ of the way from Hawaii to the Philippines.  It is the southernmost  and largest of the Marianas.   (13, 28 N and 144-44 E)

POPULATION:  (2009)  178 Th.  (2025)214 Th.  (2050)  244 Th.

POPULATION GROWTH:  rate, ¼%; life expectancy 78.7 years.

LAND AREA:  190 sq mi (541.3 sq km)   three times the size of Washington, D.C.

CLIMATE:  tropical, marine,, humid, moderated by trade winds; 88 inches rainfall, year.  It is warm and humid with cooling trade winds.  There is an occasional powerful hurricane.

TERRAIN:  volcanic with limestone plateau and coral reefs, steep coastal cliffs and narrow coastal plains.  Arable, 11%; permanent crops, 11%; pasture, 15%; woodlands, 18% other,  45%.

COMMENT:  It is an unincorporated dependency of the U.S. with 40% of its work force in U.S. employ and with 1,  million tourists, mostly Japanese, per year.  Most products and foodstuffs are imported.


GUERNSEY               crown dependenceof U.K.

Islands in the English Channel north of France

POPULATION:  (2009)  66 Th.  (2025) 67 Th.  (2050) 61 Th.

POPULATION GROWTH:  Static, life expectancy 77.5 years.

LAND AREA:  75 sq mi (194 sq km)  slightly larger than Washington, D.C.

CLIMATE:  moderate with mild, cool summers.

TERRAIN;  mostly level with low hills in south.


HONG KONG          Administrative district of China

A series of islands and bordering mainland of China and South China Sea at the mouth of the Pearl River.

POPULATION:  (2009) 7.1 mil.  (2025)  7.4 mil.  (2050)  6.2        mil.

LAND AREA:  362 sq mi (990 sq km) about 6 times the size of Washington, D.C.

TERRAIN:  a series of hilly to mountainous islands and low to north.

COMMENTS:  It is a special district with headquarters of many corporations with many small factories and an active tourist complex.  Travel between Mainland China and Hong Kong is strictly controlled.  Government has limited local autonomy.  Lifestyle remains separate from China.

The citizens of Hong Kong are universally fearful that their political autonomy will be further reduced or lost  through edicts by the Central government at Beijing.


JERSEY                     crown dependency of U>K>

Island in English Channel, northwest of France

POPULATION:  (2009)  92 Th.  (2025)  93 Th. (2050)  81 Th.

LAND AREA:  45 sq mi (117 sq km)  about 7/10 the size of Washington, D.C.

CLIMATE:  temperate with mild winters and summers.

TERRAIN:  gentle rolling with hills in north.  Arable land, 51% with nearly all the balance suitable for agriculture.

KOSOVO      declared independent, administered under U.N. authority

It is located between Albania and Serbia, landlocked

POPULATION:  (2009)  1.8 MIL.  (20255) 2.0 MIL.  (2050)  2.2 MIL.

LAND AREA:  4203  sq. mi. (10887 sq. km.) 4/5 the size of Connecticut

TERRAIN:  Flood plains surrounded by high mountains.

CLIMATE:  Moderate with cool winters.

COMMENT:  Future seems tied to that of the E.U.  It is using the Euro as a monetary unit.  Its economy is diverse and it has many natural resources.


MACAU         Special administrative district of China

It is located between the Pearl and West Rivers

POPULATION:  (2009) 560 Th.  (2025) 630 Th.  (2050) 621 Th.

LAND AREA:  10 sq. mi. (26 sq. km.)

TERRAIN: a peninsula and two islands, connected by bridge and causeway.

CLIMATE:  subtropical with warm humid summers and temperate dry winters.

COMMENT:  The mating of Macao with China has increased the tourist trade 4fold since 1999.  Macao’s major sources of livelihood are gambling, tourism, and finance.  It is tax free and with unregulated monetary exchange..  Its future is heavily dependent on the prosperity of China.


MAN, ISLE OFD      crown dependency of U.K.

Island in the Irish Sea between England and Ireland.

POPULATION:  (2009)  77 Th.  (20250  82 Th.  (2050)  80 Th.

POPULATION GROWTH:  Static, life expectancy, 78.6 years.

LAND AREA:  124 sq mi (320 sq km)  3.5 times the size of Washington, D.C.

CLIMATE:  mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers

TERRAIN:  coastal cliffs and flat, rocky plains.  Arable land, 38%, permanent

crops, 3% and non-agricultural land, 59%.


MARTINIQUE                      territory of France

Caribbean island north of Trinidad

LAND AREA:  425 sq mi (1,100 sq km)  over six times the size of Washington, D.C.

POPULATION:  (2007 est.) 426,000; population growth rate, .86% life expectancy, 78.7 years.

CLIMATE:  tropical with moderate rainy season

TERRAIN:  mountainous, with dormant volcano & indented coastline.  Arable land, 10%; permanent crop, 8%; other productive land, 50%


MAYOTTE                territory of France

Island in the Mozambique channel about halfway between northern Mozambique

and northern Madagascar.

Population:  (2009)  224 TH.  (2025)357 TH.  (2050)  594 TH.


LAND AREA:  146 sq mi (378 sq km) over twice the size of Washington, D.C.

CLIMATE;  tropical, marine with rainy season

TERRAIN:  undulating with ancient volcanic peaks and deep ravines.


MIDWAY ISLAND               territory of U.S.A.

Island atoll  about 1/3 of the way from Hawaii to Tokyo

LAND AREA:  2 sq mi (5.2 sq km)

CLIMATE:  tropical but modified by easterly winds

TERRAIN:  low, nearly flat island.  No local population


MONTSERAT                      territory of the U.K.

Island Southeast of Puerto Rico

LAND AREA:  39 sq mi (100 sq km)  about 6/10 the size of Washington, D.C.

POPULATION:   (2007 est.) 9,600; population growth rate, 1.04%; life expectancy. 80 years.

CLIMATE:  tropical with little temperature change

TERRAIN;  volcanic, mountainous with narrow coastline.  Arable land, 20%, pasture and forest, 50%.

COMMENT:  Soufried Hills volcano erupted on 18 July, 1995, requiring evacuation of 2/3 of population.  Further eruption occurred with the latest in July, 2003 .


NETHERLANDS ANTILES            territory of the Netherlands

Two groups of islands, one north of Venezuela and the other part of the Virgin Islands.

POPULATION:  (2009)  227 TH.  (20250  249 Th.  (2050)  254 Th.

Population growth is too high.  Life expectancy, 78.2 years.

LAND AREA:  377 sq mi (966 sq km)  about 5.5 times the size of Washington D,C.

CLIMATE:  tropical with cooler trade winds

TERRAIN:  generally hilly with volcanic interiors.  Arable land, 8%; non-productive land, 92%


NEW CALEDONIA              territory of France

Islands in the South Pacific east of Australia

POPULATION:  (2009)  227 Th.  (2025)  263 Th.  (2050) 292 Th.

POULATION GROWTH:  2.5%; life expectancy, 74.5 years.

LAND AREA:  7,335 sq mi (19,000 sq km) (smaller than New Jersey)

CLIMATE:  hot and humid, tropical, moderated by trade winds

TERRAIN:  coastal plain with interior mountains.  Meadowland, 14%; woodlands, 51%


NORFOLK ISLAND                        territory of Australia

Island in South Pacific east of Australia

LAND AREA:  13.4 sq mi (34.6 sq km)  about 2/10 the size of Washington, D.C.

POPULATION:  (2007 est.)  2,100.

CLIMATE:  subtropical with little season change

TERRAIN:  volcanic formation  with mostly rolling plains.  Agricultural use, 23% pastureland.


NORTHERN MARIANAS ISLANDS        commonwealth, political union with U.S.A.0

Islands in N. Pacific about ¾ of the way from Hawaii to Philippines.

POPULATION:    (2009)  51 Th. (2025)  53 Th.  (2050) 66 Th.

POPULATION GROWTH:  a little high; life expectancy, 76.3 years.

LAND AREA:    184 sq mi (477 sq km)  about 2.5 times the size of Washington, D.C.

CLIMATE:  tropical marine with rainy season, little temperature change

TERRAIN:  central islands are level plains and fringe islands are volcanic in origin

COMMENT:  Plebiscite in 1975 agreed to a commonwealth status with the U.S.A., beginning in 1976.


NIUE               free association with New Zealand

Island east of Tonga and 2/3 of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand

LAND AREA:  100 sq mi (260 sq km)  1.5 times the size of Washington, D.C.

POPULATION:  (2007 est.)1,500; ; population growth rate (-.03%).

CLIMATE:  tropical moderated by trade winds

TERRAIN:  steep interior cliffs and central plateau.  Arable land, 61%; Permanent crop, 4%; meadowlands and forest, 23%; non-productive, 12%.

PALESTINE                          (SEE Gaza Strip”,  “West Bank”)

In 2011, Palestine has applied to the United Nations and various governments to be recognized as a soverign state.


PUERTO RICO                     Commonwealth associated with U.S.A.

Island between Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, east of Dominican Republic

POPULATION:  (2009  4.0 mil.  (2025)  4.1 mil.  (2050)  3.7 mil.

POPULATION GROWTH:  static; life expectancy, 78.5 years.

LAND AREA:  3,514 sq m (9,104 sq km)  smaller than Connecticut

CLIMATE:  tropical, marine with little seasonal change

TERRAIN:  mountainous with coastal plain on north with cliffs on west coast.  Arable land, 8%; permanent crop, 9%; meadows & pastures, 41%; ; forests, 20%; rugged terrain, 22%.

COMMENTPuerto Rico is the most populous Commonwealth in the world.  In the last plebiscite in 1998, the people chose to remain a commonwealth.  The alternative choices would have been to become a state of the U.S.A. or an independent nation.


REUNION ISLAND              territory of France

Island, in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar.

LAND AREA:  965 sq mi (2,510 sq km)  slightly smaller than “Rhode Island

POPULATION:  (2007 est.) 70,900; population growth, 1.63%; life expectancy, 72.7 years.

CLIMATE:  tropical but moderated by elevation, cool and dry from May to December but hot and rainy the rest of the year

TERRAIN:  fertile lowland along coast with rugged interior.  Arable land, 20%; permanent crop and pasture, 6%; forest, 35k%; nonproductive, 39%


SAINT BARTHELEMY  (ST. BARTS)  French overseas collectivity

One of the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean.  20 miles (32 km) SE of St. Martin

POPULATION:  (2009) 7.4 Th.  (2025) 7.0 Th.  (2050)  6.5 Th.

Census 2008: 8823

LAND AREA:  8 sq. mi. (21  sq. km)

CLIMATE  Tropical  with pleasant season in winter.                      ;

TERRAIN :  Volcanic Island surrounded by coral reefs.  Average elevation is 1391 feet (434 m.).  There is little fresh water on the island.

OVERVIEW:   The Island has developed a profitable tourist area and maintains itself as a free port.  There are a number of wealthy residents.  Its future depends entirely on tourism.  Many of its citizens work in the U.S. Virgin Islands.


SAINT HELENA                   territory of U.K.

Island  about 2/3 of the way from Africa to South America and west of Angola.

LAND AREA:  158 sq mi (410 sq km) slightly larger than Washington, D.C.

POPULATION:  (2007 est.) 7,500; population growth rate, .53%; life expectancy 75 years.

CLIMATE:  tropical marine, cooled by trade winds

TERRAIN:  Rugged volcanic\c with small plain.  Arable land, 7%; other use, 10%; mountain and beech, 83%.


ST. PIERRA & MIQUELON:          territory of France

Islands in the North Atlantic, south of Newfoundland, Canada.

LAND AREA:  85 sq mi (242 sq km)  slightly less than the size of Washington D.C.

POPULATION:  (2007 est. est.) 7,000; population growth rate, .12%; life expectancy, 78.8 years.

CLIMATE:  cold and wet with windy seasons.


TERRAIN:  mostly barren rock  Arable land, 15%; forest, 4%; barren, 83%


SOCOTRA   territory of Yemen

An island and an archipelago in the Indian Ocean 150 miles E. of the horn of Africa and 200 S. o the Arabian Peninsula.

LAND AREA:  1,465 sq. mi. 382 x 31 miles.

POPULATION:  about 50,000.  Some female lineage is found nowhere else on earth.

CLIMATE:       Tropical, arid and semi-arid

TERRAIN:  Narrow coastal plain, limestone plateau, and ancient volcanic mountains.  See also Wikipedia and World Book.

NOTE:  Socotra has been declared a world Heritage Area because of a great number of species of flora and fauna unique to the Islands.


SVALBARD (Spitsbergen)  territory of Norway

Islands halfway between Norway and the North Pole

Islands between Arctic Ocean, Greenland Sea and Norwegian Sea.

LAND AREA:  23,597 sq mi (62,049 sq km)              slightly smaller than West Virginia

POPULATION:  (2007 est.) 2,000

CLIMATE;  Arctic, warmed by Atlantic currents.  Cool summers, cold winters

TERRAIN:  West coast is clear of ice for half of year, rugged, wild with mountains   Fjords on west.  No agricultural land and only bushes are crowberries and cloudberry.



Islands east of the tip of South America in the South Atlantic

LAND AREA:  1,545 sq. miles (4,006 sq. km.)  Slightly larger than Rhode Island.

POPULATION:  No indigenous population

CLIMTE:  Variable & Windy.  Nearly all precipitation is in the form of snow.

TERRAIN:  nearly all of the island rises steeply out of the see with glacier-covered mountains.


TASMANIA               Australia, subdivision

Island about 150 mi (240 km) of southeast coast of Australia

LAND AREA:  26,024 sq mi (68,467 sq km)

POPULATION:  (2005)  492,700.  Most live along the rivers in the West.

CKIMATE:    temperate, sometimes likened to that of England

TERRAIN:  Terrain is rugged, especially the Central Highlands  The west coast has heavy rainfall.  The rivers are utilized for hydroelectric power, furnishing most of the power needs of the country.

Note:  Tasmania is separated by the Bass Strait from Australia.  It is quite shallow (not over 50m or 160 feet deep).


This results in one the most dangerous straits in the world.  (Tasmania  –  Wikipedia)

                        The Wikipedia article is well-worth reading


TOKELAU                 territory of New Zealand

Island group about ½ of the way between Hawaii and New Zealand

LAND AREA:  4 sq mi (10 sq km) 17 times the size of Washington, D.C. mall.

POPULATION:  (2007 est.) 1,400; population growth, static

CLIMATE:  tropical, moderated by trade winds.


TERRAIN;  coral atoll enclosing large lagoon.




dependency of U.K.

Two island groups southeast of Bahamas in Atlantic bordering the Caribbean

POPULATION:  (2009)  23 Th.  (2025)  32 Th.  (2050)  43 Th.


LAND AREA:  166 sq mi (430 sq km)  slightly smaller than Washington, D.C.

CLIMATE:  tropical, marine, sunny & relatively dry

TERRAIN:  low, extensive marshes & mangrove.  Arable land, 2^


VIRGIN ISLANDS               territory of U.S.

Island group between the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea, east of Puerto Rico

POPULATION:  (2009)  110 TH.  (20025)  1007 TH.  (2050)  92 TH.

LAND AREA:  w124 sq mi(352 sq km)


POPULATION:  (21996 est.)  188,000; population growth rate, (-.0017%); life expectancy, 78.2 yrs.

CLIMATE:  subtropical, tempered by trade winds

TERRAIN:  mostly hilly to mountainous with little level land.  Arable land, 155%; permanent crop, 6%; pastures & forest, 22%; nonproductive, 47%


VIRGIN ISLANDS, BRITISH         British overseas territory

Located east of Puerto Rico

POPULATION:   (2009) 24.5 Th.  (2025)  30.8 Th.  (2050)  34.8 Th.  About 18,000 live on the island of Tortilla.

LAND AREA:  59 sq mi. (153 sq. km.)There are over 50 islands, 15 of which are occupied

CLIMATE:  Tropical with cooling breezes.  The area is subject to hurricanes.

TERRAIN:    The islands are mostly of volcanic origin and are quite rugged.

OVERVIEW:  Agriculture is second to tourism.  The islands are near to the U.S. Virgins and their economy is closely related.


WAKE ISLAND                    territory of U.S.A.

Island about 2/3 of the way from Hawaii to Marianas islands

LAND AREA:  2.5 sq mi(6.5 sq km) 11 times the size of the Washington Mall

POPULATION: service personnel only

CLIMATE:  tropical

TERRAIN:  Terrain:  atoll of 3 islands on rim of sunken volcanic crater  sandy, coral


WEST BANK            main area of the PLO Arab.  Although the area is nominally Palestine, the Israelis are active in policing.  There are at present about ½ million Israelis in settlements on the West Bank.

POPULATION:  (2009)    2.46 mil.  (2025)  3.33 mil.  (2050)  4.38 mil.

LAND AREA:  2255 sq. mi. (5840 sq. km.)

CLIMATE:  Mediterranean with winters quite cool.

TERRAIN. It borders the Jordan on the East to the Dead Sea.  Much of it is rolling. With heights to the North and desert to the east.

OVERVIEW:  Palestine will continue to be in turmoil until Israel discontinues its control and the radical Palestinians cease terrorism.  At present, the Israelis occupy about 40% of the West Bank with roads, settlements, parks, and military posts.  Population growth is not accompanied by an expanding economy.

See also:  Encyclopedia of the Nations, Book 4 of the Nations “Israel”

“West Bank,”  Wikipedia


WESTERN SAHARA   Claimed by Morocco, Algeria and local tribes

It is located on the Western Sahara, bordered on the West by the Atlantic, the North by Morocco and the East by Algeria & Mauritania.

POPULATION:  (2009) 405 Th.  (2025) 616 Th.  (2050) 987 Th.

LAND AREA:  103,000 sq. mi. (266,ppp sq. km.)

CLIMATE:  Hot and dry, more moderate along the coast

TERRAIN:  desert area with narrow agricultural strip along the coast.

ADMINISTRATION:  Morocco claims the country but the people seek independence.  The Polisario Front controls the interior.  A  referendum for independence  has been in negotiation since the late 1900’s with no agreement.  The King of Morocco has declared that he will not surrender a grain of sand.  Morocco has been accused by international agencies of violating the rights of residents.

OVERVIEW:    The controversy over independence has continued for over 30 years with no end in sight.


See World Almanac p 818,” Morocco:

            “Western Sahara” Wikipedia


Several countries, because of special interest or importance, deserve further comment.


Taliban”  Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia

The Russians set up a communist government when they occupied Afghanistan.  This government was overthrown in 1992 by Tribal leaders and a democratic-type government was set up.  It recognized the rights of minorities and women.  Pakistan became actively interested in developing its power and influence in Central Asia.  Saudi Arabia and Iran both also began active efforts to develop their agendas in Afghanistan.

The Taliban movement began in the city of Kandahar by Mullah Omar from refugee students of a school in Pakistan.  The movement was actively supported by Pakistani troops .  Pakistan continues to support the Taliban .

The Taliban and its supporters have shown little regard for human rights and values and caused the deaths of thousands of civilians and the destruction of tens of thousands of homes and farms in the process of controlling th population.

Pakistan’s active support of Taliban and its efforts to spread its influence continues to make efforts to set up Democratic government impossible.



Pollution: Growth of GDP has been accompanied by large expansion of demand and supply of coal-fired power plants.  Air pollution has been accompanied by a reckless ignoring of laws passed to protect water.

Quality of export products:  There seems to be little governmental inspection of products exported.  Wallboard exported to the U.S. proved to have acid outgasing that caused wholesale destruction of other materials and causing sickness.  The only remedy was major rebuilding.  Pharmaceuticals were often poor quality and sometimes of no value.  Lead paints were used in toys exported to the U.S.  Wholesale ignoring of patent rights, especially in music and movies.

Military and economic bullying:  Incursions into Japanese waters by Chinese fishing fleets.  Japanese efforts to curb by arrest were thwarted by Chinese diplomacy.    A further action was the cutting off of vital rare earths to the Japanese market.  Newsweek, November 22, 2010, 

Overseas operations:  Many projects in Africa including roads, manufacturing, dams and other construction have proved to be done in a shoddy and costly manner with many complaints by host countries. Newsweek, “Scope, August 18,2010, p 8.

Support of N. Korea:  Many believe that China’s support of N. Korea is based on the fear that N. Korea’s collapse would see millions of starving N. Koreans crossing the Yalu into China.  Newsweek, “Scope” November 22, 2010, p 7.

Territorial Claims: China has suddenly become quite aggressive, even printing maps showing an entire province of India as a part of China.  It is not clear if this is mere bluster or true threat.  Newsweek, “Scope”, December 6, 2010, p. 8.

Pharmaceuticals are woefully below standards, both for domestic and export use.  Newsweek, November 29, 2010, p. 8



Based on an article “Wind of Change”  by Ben Barber, American Legion Magazine, March, 2012.

Most of the revolts are by peoples seeking democratic processes.  These processes are, in turn, being countered by active fundamentalist elements with active friction between Sunnis and Shiites.

ALGERIA:   Democratic republic since 1976.  Civil problems with a large Berber minority is a continuing problem.

BAHRAIN:  Royalty’s Sunni based government faced the threat of a Shiite majority demonstrations.  Saudi troops assisted in quelling the uprising.

EGYPT:  The government was toppled by liberal and educated elements.  The Army restored order and acts as a provisional government.  Elections indicate the ascendance of Fundamentalist future if allowed by the army.

IRAN:  The spiritual leader continues to be the most powerful person and continues to direct the actions of the government.

IRAQ:  The country continues to be plagued with car bombings and suicide bombings by a group that seeks to overthrow the government.

JORDAN:  King Abdullah was able to defuse a protest movement by reshuffling the government>  Labor strikes continue to haunt Jordan in 2012

KUWAIT:  The king dissolved the parliament and proposed election.  This satisfied demonstrators.

LIBYA:  Gaddafi ruled Libya  for 40 years.  It 6 months for rebel forces to topple him.  The democratic government is having difficulty in establishing rule because of many tribal activities.

MOROCCO:  The king offered concessions and  elections.  His special power is as head of holding c companies that own and control h of the economy of Morocco.

SAUDI ARABIA:  A rebellion in 2011 of Shiites was short-lived.

SUDAN:  South Sudan has won separation from Sudan.  The Sudan Junta and its leader continue in power and continue its policy of harassing minorities.

SYRIA:  The Damascus government has ruthlessly put down all demonstrations.  Many thousands have been killed and the U.Sn has applied widespread sanctions.  As of March 2012, the rebellion has been unsuccessful.

TUNISIA:  A frustrated vendor set himself on fire after being harassed by police.  It kicked off a series of demonstrations that caused the Dictator to flee the country. This was the beginning of a series of rebellions thought Middle East countries.

YEMEN:  After conflict between the government and various tribes, the president resigned.  Many concessions have as yet been enacted.



Israel continues to resist talking seriously about permanent borders with Palestine and with the difficulty of dealing with the leadership of the Gala strip and the continuing expansion of Jewish settlements and replacing ownership by Palestinians with that of Jewish settlers.  Israel has never been able to operate without some assistance from abroad.  Its security is currently unsettled by turmoil and change of leaderships in adjacent Arab countries.  Domination by fundamentalists has created n inflexible barrier between Palestinians and Israelis that makes cooperation, necessary for a future Israel, impossible.  Newsweek, November 7, 2011.



Tsunami:  The Tsunami in March, 2011, has seriously crippled Japan’s economy itch the loss if several Atomic Energy plants.  It may be years before Japan will have adequate electrical supplies.

Depressed economy has persisted since 1992 when inflated real estate prices tumbled. Stimulus packages have failed.  An inflated Yen hs hampered export goods and an ageing population has reduced domestic consumption.  Real Estate values have not recovered and all banks suffered serious losses.  Newsweek,



“The Lady’s Destiny” Newsweek, March 12, 2012.  (Pp. 40-48)

World Sanctions and a failed economy have persuaded the Junta to permit election in April 2012.  Leading the opposition is Agung San Usu Kyi who has been in house arrest for over 2 decades.  She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991 for her work.  She is now being permitted to run for office.  This dramatic change may well see the beginning of democracy.  Sanctions will not be lifted unless the election culminates in reform and a beginning of democratic processes.

Appendix A – Category Description of Country

POPULATION:  Current population is estimated by the United Nations.

POPULATION GROWTH:  The population growth factor is based on current growth and by known factors that may affect growth.

LIFE EXPECTANCY:  Life expectancy is based on the point at which half the people born at a particular time, will still be alive.  Life span and overall productivity are a result of health factors.   It also indicates the number of people who will live beyond their productive years.

HEALTH:  Major factors in the health of a population are considered as follows:

  • Availability of adequate food
  • Potable water and sanitation facilities
  • Medical services include clinics, hospitals and a trained medical staff. .
  • Incidents of disease and types of disease.  Major diseases are of 3 types, virus, bacteria, & protozoa (parasite).  “See World II”
  • Viruses are incomplete centers of DNA or RNA with a protein cover.  They must enter specific cells for nutrition and reproduction.  They include:
    • Influenza         colds        HIV-aids        hepatitis        measles
    • Chickenpox        mumps        poliomyelitis        rabies        mumps
    • HIV-AIDS
  • Bacteria are simple one cell living material, usually classified as plants.  Most bacteria are necessary in life functions.  Harmful bacteria include the following:
    • Syphilis        Pneumonia        typhoid fever        gonorrhea        leprosy
    • Cholera        tuberculosis        Whooping cough
  • Parasites include protozoa, fungi, and multi-cell types.  They include.
    • Elephantiasis        Hookworm        Malaria        Pinworm        Roundworm
    • Schistosomiasis        Sleeping sickness        Symbiosis
    • Tapeworm        Trichinosis

CAPITAL: It is the designated seat of government.

LANGUAGES:  The languages spoken have special relevance.  There is difficulty in administration and education if there are several languages spoken among the population.  Many local dialects and languages may not have a written counterpart.  Translating information and edicts into a plethora of languages is time consuming.

LITERACY:  is the gauge of the ability to impart knowledge to the population.  It is limited by the availability of printed matter in your particular language. Communication is especially important in dealing with health, family planning, and development of economic productivity.

INCOME, GDP:  This is a gauge of gross domestic product in terms of U. S. dollars.  It is gauging economic relation of a country to world commerce.  It is not entirely reliable because it does not reflect the output of goods and services that are bartered or consumed by the producer, nor can it reflect the services not reported to government agencies.  Furthermore an hour of labor is priced differently in many ways.

GDP has another weakness, or fallacy. The needs of the population in a tropical country will be far less than those in a temperate climate or highly developed society that requires a complex infrastructure in order to function.  An example is housing.  A tropical hut requires far less upkeep than the poorest shelter in Canada or Siberia.  The labor is far less and the cost of materials is quite different.

LOCATION is the relationship of one country to the surrounding countries.  Stability and well-being of each country will affect all adjacent countries.

LAND USE:  This reflects the productive value of the land and its ability to sustain a Population.

  • ARABLE: is land that is tilled to produce a crop whether is for food or fashion.
  • PERMANENT CROP:  mainly vineyards, and orchards
  • PASTURE:  (under 20 inches of rainfall) land suitable for sustaining herds
  • FOREST & WOODLAND:  land that may or my may not be suitable for other purposes and is currently forested.
  • OTHER:  this includes, dessert (areas with under 10 inches of rainfall annually), mountains, undeveloped swamps, and tundra (areas with permafrost).

TOPOGRAPHY:  This is the general nature of the countryside.  Its special significance is in the advantages or disadvantages it presents in the development and functions of a society.

WATER:  Rainfall and water available and usable for agriculture or societal purposes.

CLIMATE:  The climate involves the need  for shelter and clothing, development of areas for habitation, and the effect of heat or humidity on human activity.  It has a direct effect on the use that may be made of the land.

GOVERNMENT:  Government is the method by which a society and its environment may be organized and developed.  Among its functions are security, health, and education.

RELIGION:  The religious establishments may be the best sources of communication in countries with a number of languages.  It may be the key to population growth and family planning.  Leaders may be the sources of peace or the fomenting of turmoil and revolution.  Religious leaders may have feet of clay

NATURAL RESOURCES:  These are potentially key building blocks of developing a productive economy.

WORLD TRADE:  No country is self-sufficient.  World trade and the balance of imports and exports are the gauge by which we can judge the health of an economy. That and GDP can help forecast the near future of the health of an economy, and assist in charting a course of action.

OVERVIEW:  All the above factors play a part in the present or forecasting the  future of a country.  The overview is a forecast of the future of that country.  Many of the above factors are subject to change, especially in view of the effects of global warming and climate changes that are as yet uncertain.


AUTHOR’S NOTE:  All of above factors are closely related to the net productivity of a people.  Population growth concerns the size of a family.  Outside of the agricultural area the larger family places burdens on society.  Life expectancy denotes the number of people who will live through their productive years and beyond at which time they need to be supported by the society.  Health includes the factor of malaria and other diseases that sap the energy of the people and reduces their ability to maintain a productive life.  Malnutrition has a serious effect on development of physical and mental abilities. Goiter denotes a lack of iodine, an element necessary for mental development.  AIDS reduces the effective work life and family functions and ultimately increases the burden on others.  Climate has a vital function.  If it is too hot the worker will have difficulty maintaining a productive work rate.  Hot, dry climates may require much more labor to attain work objectives.

Appendix B – Income, GDP per capita, by Country

INCOME (Gross Domestic Product in U.S. Dollars)




















































Costa  Rica















Dominican Republic










El Salvador




























































St. Kit & Nevis





St. Lucia





St. Vincent















United States




































Burkina Faso















Cape Verde





Central Africa















Congo, Democratic





Congo, Republic





Cote d’Ivory















Equatorial Guinea



















































































































Sao Tome















Sierra Leone










South Africa













































Note:  Zimbabwe has a runaway inflation in 2005.




















































East Timor























































Korea North





Korea, South










Kyrgyz Stan

























Marshall Is.















Myanmar (Burma)















New Zealand








































Saudi Arabia










Solomon Is.





Sri Lanka













































United Arab Emirates.
























































Bosnia & Herzegovina















Czech Republic







































































































































San Marino








































United Kingdom





Appendix D – Major Diseases of the World

BILHARZIASIS (Schistosomiasis) is a parasitic infection caused by a fluke of the genus schistosoma.  Its alternate host is a snail.  Transmission is from contaminated water such as rivers, and maybe caught by wading in water or ingesting contaminated water.  Treatment is difficult but proper sanitation and chlorinating water is effective in control.  Parasites plug small veins and often cause “river blindness”.

BLACK DEATH:  See bubonic plague

BUBONIC PLAGUE:  also “plague” This bacteria is transmitted to humans and other animals by fleas that bite infected rodents, especially rats.  The disease is usually fatal unless patient is given early treatment.

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE:  disease o4f the heart and circulatory system.  Disease is a common part of the ageing process, compounded by life style and heredity.

CHOLERA:  It is an acute infection of the intestines caused by a bacterium that causes the outpouring of watery fluid from the intestinal walls and resulting in severe dehydration and vomiting.  Transmission is through contaminated water or food.  It is common in tropical areas of Asia and Africa.  Children are especially vulnerable.  Dehydration may be treated with interventions fluids.

DENGUE FEVER:  (break bone fever) is transmitted by a mosquito.  It is rarely fatal.  It is accompanied by severe pain and often followed by depression and debility before return to normal health.

DIABETES:  (sugar diabetes) failure of the liver to produce sufficient insulin to utilize sugars and starches in a normal way.  The incidence of the disease may be heredity or obesity.  The actual cause of the disease is not known.

DIARRHEA:  any infection of the intestines that causes watery stool.  Vomiting and dehydration often accompany it.

DIPHTHERIA:  It is an acute bacterial infection.  The bacteria usually grow in the nose and throat and may infect other mucus membranes and skin.  The disease can be transmitted by a carrier or airborne droplets.  Widespread vaccination has been highly effective.

EBOLA VIRUS: The disease affects the digestive system and can cause internal hemorrhaging.  It first appeared in Africa near the Ebola River in 1976.  It is passed from person to person by syringes and through food handling.  The disease is sometimes present in foods with resulting illness.

ELEPHANTIASIS:  Infestation of the lymph channels by the filarial worm that enters the body by the bite of an infected mosquito.  Without successful treatment the channels are obstructed with resulting gross swelling of skin and underlying tissues, especially of genitalia and legs.

ENCEPHALITIS:  Infection of the brain by virus or other organisms.  The most common is a virus commonly transmitted by ticks and mosquitoes.  It may also be a complication of other virus diseases such as mumps, measles, herpes simplex, chickenpox, etc. It is most common in the tropics.

ENTERIC FEVER:  (a member of the typhoid genus) The effect is mostly in the intestinal tract, but the bacteria are present in the blood stream.

FILARIASIS:  A general term for infestation by any of several tropical worms.  See elephantiasis.

GOITER:  Swelling of the thyroid gland usually because of an insufficient ingestion of iodine.  It is  commonly found in interior lands such as the central United States and interior Africa.  Iodine is vital to adequate brain development.  This condition can be avoided by the addition of iodine to salt.  Seafoods are a good source of iodine.

GONORRHEA:  It is a sexually transmitted disease that, unless treated, may cause sterility and possible blindness.  It is very common worldwide.  About three million cases occur in the United States each year.

GUINEA WORM:  One of many parasites common to the tropics.

HEPATITIS:  Inflammation of the liver caused by any of several viruses.  Condition may be chronic or acute.  Hepatitis A may be spread in drinking water.  Other types are usually spread through infected blood products.

HIV-AIDS:  Virus that attacks the immune system.  It is spread through direct contact, usually through blood transfusion, by infected needles or unprotected sexual contact.  Remission is possible through medical treatment.  Failure of the immune system is eventually fatal.  Over thirty million people worldwide test positive for the disease.

HOOKWORM:   tropical parasite worm are found in moist, warm soil.  Infection may occur through bare feet, water, and food.  Once in the blood the worm passes through lung tissue and into the intestines where it feeds on body fluids.  It causes anemia and other problems especially in children.  Animals including dogs and cats may contract the disease and may pass it on to humans.

INFLUENZA:  It is a highly contagious infection of the respiratory  system by any of several viruses.  It lowers the body resistance to other diseases especially of the lungs.

KWASHIORKOR:  It is a severe form of malnutrition in children that results from inadequate intake of protein.  Common symptoms are swelling of abdomen, legs and feet.  Affected children do not grow normally and are listless and lacking energy.

LEPROSY:  (Hansen’s Disease)  It is a rod shaped bacteria.  Between 4 &5 million people worldwide are infected.  The disease primarily affects the skin and mucous membranes, especially the nose and throat.  Untreated cases may develop crippling deformities of hands and feet.     Leprosy is not commonly fatal but may cause blindness.

MALARIA:  It is a parasitic single cell organism that infects red blood cells.  Mosquitoes that carry the larvae are found in tropical and subtropical areas. including parts of the Southern United States.  Infected humans suffer from periodic high fevers.  Symptoms may be reduced by medical treatment.  Malaria is the number one killer of people worldwide.

MEASLES:  virus, highly contagious, lasting about 7to 10 days.  The major danger is the high fever and possible eye damage.

MENINGITIS:  Inflammation  of the membranes that cover the brain and the spine, bacterial.  Early treatment is necessary to avoid fatality.  Viral meningitis may be far less dangerous.  Meningitis may be bacterial, viral, or protozoan, requiring different treatments.  Other infections could lead to meningitis..

NILE VIRUS:  Virus transmitted by mosquitoes.

PELLAGRA:  Vitamin deficiency, (Niacin) is common among those with corn as a staple diet.  Symptoms include skin that is dry and scaly and sores in the mouth.  Lack of niacin for extended periods can cause dementia and death.

PERTUSSIS:  (Whooping Cough)inflammation of the respiratory system.  It is characterized by coughing.  It is quite dangerous in children but rarely in adults.  Complications include cerebral hemorrhage, hemorrhaging in nasal passages, and pneumonia.

PNEUMONIC PLAGUE:  details missing

RICKETS:  (deficiency of Vitamin D)  The body manufactures vitamin D when exposed to the sun.  Rickets is common only in areas with little sun.  It is most common in infants and growing children and results in slow growth, weak bones and enlarged joints.

SCHISTOSOMIASIS:  Bilharziasis or river blindness.

SLEEPING SICKNESS:  (African Trypanosomiasis)  It is common to tropical and subtropical areas of Africa.  It is an inflammation of the brain, causing sleepiness, weariness, fever and usually death.  It is transmitted by the bite of an infected tsetse fly.  Early treatment of the disease is usually successful.

SMALLPOX:   Virus, highly contagious.  The disease killed about 20% of its victims and permanently scarred the others.  In the New World where the disease was unknown, the disease, when introduced by the Spanish, wiped out virtually entire populations.

SYPHILLIS:  (a spiral shaped bacteria) an extremely contagious sexually transmitted disease.  It can also be transmitted through cuts and through the placenta to the fetus.

Syphilis is progressive with eventual damage to many organs and possible blindness.  The tertiary state, sometimes many years later, involves cardiovascular and other major organs and death.  Treatment is necessary to cure syphilis.

TAPEWORM:  It is a parasitic worm shaped like a long flat piece of tape. The head has tiny hooks that attach to the intestinal wall.  Behind are literally hundreds of segments, which contain eggs that are expelled with the feces and eaten by primary hosts, cattle, hogs, or fish.  The eggs hatch and the larvae are carried to the muscles of the host.  Eating poorly cooked meat will result in the passing into the human.  Tapeworms cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and loss of weight.  Worm-killing drugs are effective.

TRACHOMA:  Chronic infection of the membrane that covers the front of the eye.  It is common in areas of poor sanitation and is highly infectious.  Early detection and treatment is necessary to avoid loss of vision.

TRYPANOSOMIASISL  (See Sleeping Sickness)

TUBERCULOSIS:  (usually a bacterial infection of the lungs) (Mycobacterium Tuberculosis) infectious  may be transmitted through breathing droplets of infected mucus or sputum.  It may be caught from infected milk.  The disease normally infects tissue of one lung but may also infect the other lung or any organ or the bones.  The patient may develop immunity and the bacteria will be surrounded by scar tissue.  The disease tends to recur if the body’s immunity is weakened by certain drugs such as cortisone or by contracting HIV-AIDS.  Treatment takes at least 6 months but rarely over 18.  The incidence is high in crowded areas and inadequate diet.

TYPHOID FEVER:  (enteric fever)  Typhoid  fever is the most serious of the salmonella infections.  It is caused by ingesting contaminated food or contact with urine or feces of infected people.  Illness is severe with a high fever that lasts up to two weeks.  Among complications are pneumonia, diarrhea, and perforated ulcers that may require surgical repair.  Patients who recover may be carriers for some time.

TYPHUS:  Any of several related diseases caused by species of rickettsia with characteristics of bacteria and virus.  Among these are epidemic typhus, endemic typhus, scrub typhus, Rocky Mountain fever, and Q fever.  Various fleas, ticks, and lice may carry one of these diseases.  Many of these carriers are found on rodents.  Epidemic Typhus is frequently fatal.

WHOOPING COUGH:  (see Pertussis)

YAWS:  caused by a spiral bacteria indistinguishable from that of syphilis.  Yaws is spread by contact with the swellings of a diseased person and a break in the skin of another.  The disease cannot penetrate unbroken skin or the placenta.  The disease maybe easily cured.  Untreated yaws may have further complications over several years.

YELLOW FEVER:  It is a viral disease transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected mosquito.  The disease is common in the tropics of Africa and South America.  The disease may damage many body tissues such as the brain and heart, but especially the liver.  Yellow coloration of the skin gives the disease its name.  Fatality rate is fairly low.  Recovery may be slow.