POPULATION: Current population is estimated by the United Nations.
POPULATION GROWTH: The population growth factor is based on current growth and by known factors that may affect growth.
LIFE EXPECTANCY: Life expectancy is based on the point at which half the people born at a particular time, will still be alive. Life span and overall productivity are a result of health factors. It also indicates the number of people who will live beyond their productive years.
HEALTH: Major factors in the health of a population are considered as follows:
- Availability of adequate food
- Potable water and sanitation facilities
- Medical services include clinics, hospitals and a trained medical staff. .
- Incidents of disease and types of disease. Major diseases are of 3 types, virus, bacteria, & protozoa (parasite). “See World II”
- Viruses are incomplete centers of DNA or RNA with a protein cover. They must enter specific cells for nutrition and reproduction. They include:
- Influenza colds HIV-aids hepatitis measles
- Chickenpox mumps poliomyelitis rabies mumps
- Bacteria are simple one cell living material, usually classified as plants. Most bacteria are necessary in life functions. Harmful bacteria include the following:
- Syphilis Pneumonia typhoid fever gonorrhea leprosy
- Cholera tuberculosis Whooping cough
- Parasites include protozoa, fungi, and multi-cell types. They include.
- Elephantiasis Hookworm Malaria Pinworm Roundworm
- Schistosomiasis Sleeping sickness Symbiosis
- Tapeworm Trichinosis
CAPITAL: It is the designated seat of government.
LANGUAGES: The languages spoken have special relevance. There is difficulty in administration and education if there are several languages spoken among the population. Many local dialects and languages may not have a written counterpart. Translating information and edicts into a plethora of languages is time consuming.
LITERACY: is the gauge of the ability to impart knowledge to the population. It is limited by the availability of printed matter in your particular language. Communication is especially important in dealing with health, family planning, and development of economic productivity.
INCOME, GDP: This is a gauge of gross domestic product in terms of U. S. dollars. It is gauging economic relation of a country to world commerce. It is not entirely reliable because it does not reflect the output of goods and services that are bartered or consumed by the producer, nor can it reflect the services not reported to government agencies. Furthermore an hour of labor is priced differently in many ways.
GDP has another weakness, or fallacy. The needs of the population in a tropical country will be far less than those in a temperate climate or highly developed society that requires a complex infrastructure in order to function. An example is housing. A tropical hut requires far less upkeep than the poorest shelter in Canada or Siberia. The labor is far less and the cost of materials is quite different.
LOCATION is the relationship of one country to the surrounding countries. Stability and well-being of each country will affect all adjacent countries.
LAND USE: This reflects the productive value of the land and its ability to sustain a Population.
- ARABLE: is land that is tilled to produce a crop whether is for food or fashion.
- PERMANENT CROP: mainly vineyards, and orchards
- PASTURE: (under 20 inches of rainfall) land suitable for sustaining herds
- FOREST & WOODLAND: land that may or my may not be suitable for other purposes and is currently forested.
- OTHER: this includes, dessert (areas with under 10 inches of rainfall annually), mountains, undeveloped swamps, and tundra (areas with permafrost).
TOPOGRAPHY: This is the general nature of the countryside. Its special significance is in the advantages or disadvantages it presents in the development and functions of a society.
WATER: Rainfall and water available and usable for agriculture or societal purposes.
CLIMATE: The climate involves the need for shelter and clothing, development of areas for habitation, and the effect of heat or humidity on human activity. It has a direct effect on the use that may be made of the land.
GOVERNMENT: Government is the method by which a society and its environment may be organized and developed. Among its functions are security, health, and education.
RELIGION: The religious establishments may be the best sources of communication in countries with a number of languages. It may be the key to population growth and family planning. Leaders may be the sources of peace or the fomenting of turmoil and revolution. Religious leaders may have feet of clay
NATURAL RESOURCES: These are potentially key building blocks of developing a productive economy.
WORLD TRADE: No country is self-sufficient. World trade and the balance of imports and exports are the gauge by which we can judge the health of an economy. That and GDP can help forecast the near future of the health of an economy, and assist in charting a course of action.
OVERVIEW: All the above factors play a part in the present or forecasting the future of a country. The overview is a forecast of the future of that country. Many of the above factors are subject to change, especially in view of the effects of global warming and climate changes that are as yet uncertain.
AUTHOR’S NOTE: All of above factors are closely related to the net productivity of a people. Population growth concerns the size of a family. Outside of the agricultural area the larger family places burdens on society. Life expectancy denotes the number of people who will live through their productive years and beyond at which time they need to be supported by the society. Health includes the factor of malaria and other diseases that sap the energy of the people and reduces their ability to maintain a productive life. Malnutrition has a serious effect on development of physical and mental abilities. Goiter denotes a lack of iodine, an element necessary for mental development. AIDS reduces the effective work life and family functions and ultimately increases the burden on others. Climate has a vital function. If it is too hot the worker will have difficulty maintaining a productive work rate. Hot, dry climates may require much more labor to attain work objectives.